Книга: Embedded Linux Primer: A Practical, Real-World Approach

7.4.1. EP405 U-Boot Port

7.4.1. EP405 U-Boot Port

The same logic applies to porting U-Boot to a new board. Let's look at an example. We will use the Embedded Planet EP405 board, which contains the AMCC PowerPC 405GP processor. The particular board used for this example was provided courtesy of Embedded Planet and came with 64MB of SDRAM and 16MB of on-board Flash. Numerous other devices complete the design.

The first step is to see how close we can come to an existing board. Many boards in the U-Boot source tree support the 405GP processor. A quick grep of the board-configuration header files narrows the choices to those that support the 405GP processor:

$ cd .../u-boot/include/configs$ grep -l CONFIG_405GP *

In a recent U-Boot snapshot, 25 board configuration files are configured for 405GP. After examining a few, the AR405.h configuration is chosen as a baseline. It contains support for the LXT971 Ethernet transceiver, which is also on the EP405. The goal is to minimize any development work by borrowing from others in the spirit of open source. Let's tackle the easy steps first. Copy the board-configuration file to a new file with a name appropriate for your board. We'll call ours EP405.h. These commands are issued from the top-level U-Boot source tree.

$ cp .../include/configs/AR405.h .../include/configs/EP405.h

Then create the board-specific directory and make a copy of the AR405 board files. We don't know yet whether we need all of them. That step comes later. After copying the files to your new board directory, edit the filenames appropriately for your board name.

$ cd board <<< from top level U-Boot source directory
$ mkdir ep405
$ cp esd/ar405/* ep405

Now comes the hard part. Jerry Van Baren, a developer and U-Boot contributor, detailed a humorous though realistic process for porting U-Boot in an e-mail posting to the U-Boot mailing list. His complete process, documented in C, can be found in the U-Boot README file. The following summarizes the hard part of the porting process in Jerry's style and spirit:

while (!running) {
 do {
  Add / modify source code
 } until (compiles);
 Debug;
 ...
}

Jerry's process, as summarized here, is the simple truth. When you have selected a baseline from which to port, you must add, delete, and modify source code until it compiles, and then debug it until it is running without error! There is no magic formula. Porting any bootloader to a new board requires knowledge of many areas of hardware and software. Some of these disciplines, such as setting up SDRAM controllers, are rather specialized and complex. Virtually all of this work involves a detailed knowledge of the underlying hardware. The net result: Be prepared to spend many entertaining hours poring over your processor's hardware reference manual, along with the data sheets of numerous other components that reside on your board.

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