Книга: Distributed operating systems

8.2.3. Scheduling

8.2.3. Scheduling

Mach scheduling has been heavily influenced by its goal of running on multiprocessors. Since a single-processor system is effectively a special case of a multiprocessor (with only one CPU), our discussion will focus on scheduling in multiprocessor systems. For more information, see (Black, 1990).

The CPUs in a multiprocessor can be assigned to processor sets by software. Each CPU belongs to exactly one processor set. Threads can also be assigned to processor sets by software. Thus each processor set has a collection of CPUs at its disposal and a collection of threads that need computing power. The job of the scheduling algorithm is to assign threads to CPUs in a fair and efficient way. For purposes of scheduling, each processor set is a closed world, with its own resources and its own customers, independent of all the other processor sets.

This mechanism gives processes a large amount of control over their threads. A process can assign an important thread to a processor set with one CPU and no other threads, thus ensuring that the thread runs all the time. It can also dynamically reassign threads to processor sets as the work proceeds, keeping the load balanced. While the average compiler is not likely to use this facility, a data base management system or a real-time system might well use it.

Thread scheduling in Mach is based on priorities. Priorities are integers from 0 to some maximum (usually 31 or 127), with 0 being the highest priority and 31 or 127 being the lowest priority. This priority reversal comes from UNIX. Each thread has three priorities assigned to it. The first priority is a base priority, which the thread can set itself, within certain limits. The second priority is the lowest numerical value that the thread may set its base priority to. Since using a higher value gives worse service, a thread will normally set its value to the lowest value it is permitted, unless it is trying intentionally to defer to other threads. The third priority is the current priority, used for scheduling purposes. It is computed by the kernel by adding to the base priority a function based on the thread's recent CPU usage.

Mach threads are visible to the kernel, at least when the model of Fig. 8-5(b) is used. Each thread competes for CPU cycles with all other threads, without regard to which thread is in which process. When making scheduling decisions, the kernel does not take into account which thread belongs to which process.

Associated with each processor set is an array of run queues, as shown in Fig. 8-6. The array has 32 queues, corresponding to threads currently at priorities 0 through 31. When a thread at priority n becomes runnable, it is put at the end of queue n. A thread that is not runnable is not present on any run queue.

Each run queue has three variables attached to it. The first is a mutex that is used to lock the data structure. It is used to make sure that only one CPU at a time is manipulating the queues. The second variable is the count of the number of threads on all the queues combined. If this count becomes 0, there is no work to do. The third variable is a hint as to where to find the highest-priority thread. It is guaranteed that no thread is at a higher priority, but the highest may be at a lower priority. This hint allows the search for the highest-priority thread to avoid the empty queues at the top.

Fig. 8-6. The global run queues for a system with two processor sets.

In addition to the global run queues shown in Fig. 8-6, each CPU has its own local run queue. Each local run queue holds those threads that are permanently bound to that CPU, for example, because they are device drivers for I/O devices attached to that CPU. These threads can run on only one CPU, so putting them on the global run queue is incorrect (because the "wrong" CPU might choose them).

We can now describe the basic scheduling algorithm. When a thread blocks, exits, or uses up its quantum, the CPU it is running on first looks on its local run queue to see if there are any active threads. This check merely requires inspecting the count variable associated with the local run queue. If it is nonzero, the CPU begins searching the queue for the highest-priority thread, starting at the queue specified by the hint. If the local run queue is empty, the same algorithm is applied to the global run queue, the only difference being that the global run queue must be locked before it can be searched. If there are no threads to run on either queue, a special idle thread is run until some thread becomes ready.

If a runnable thread is found, it is scheduled and run for one quantum. At the end of the quantum, both the local and global run queues are checked to see if any other threads at its priority or higher are runnable, with the understanding that all threads on the local run queue have higher priority than all threads on the global run queue. If a suitable candidate is found, a thread switch occurs. If not, the thread is run for another quantum. Threads may also be preempted. On multiprocessors, the length of the quantum is variable, depending on the number of threads that are runnable. The more runnable threads and the fewer CPUs here are, the shorter the quantum. This algorithm gives good response time to short requests, even on heavily loaded systems, but provides high efficiency i.e., long quanta) on lightly loaded systems.

On every clock tick, the CPU increments the priority counter of the currently running thread by a small amount. As the value goes up, the priority goes down and the thread will eventually move to a higher-numbered (i.e., lower-priority) queue. The priority counters are lowered by the passage of time.

For some applications, a large number of threads may be working together to solve a single problem, and it may be important to control the scheduling in detail. Mach provides a hook to give threads some additional control over their scheduling (in addition to the processor sets and priorities). The hook is a system call that allows a thread to lower its priority to the absolute minimum for a specified number of seconds. Doing so gives other threads a chance to run. When the time interval is over, the priority is restored to its previous value.

This system call has another interesting property: it can name its successor if it wants to. For example, after sending a message to another thread, the sending thread can give up the CPU and request that the receiving thread be allowed to run next. This mechanism, called handoff scheduling, bypasses the run queues entirely. Used wisely, it can enhance performance. The kernel also uses it in some circumstances, as an optimization.

Mach can be configured to do affinity scheduling, but generally this option is off. When it is on, the kernel schedules a thread on the CPU it last ran on, in lopes that part of its address space is still in that CPU's cache. Affinity scheduling is only applicable to multiprocessors.

Finally, several other scheduling algorithms are supported in some versions, including algorithms useful for real-time applications.

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