Книга: Управление отделом продаж

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· #1

Профессора Гил Черчилль, Нил Форд, Орвил Уолкер являются авторами первой книги под названием «Управление отделом продаж». Она была издана в 1981 году. – Примеч. ред.

· #2

Кейс – это описание некой очень правдоподобной или реальной ситуации, в данном случае связанной с продажами. Такое описание служит для учебных целей, прежде всего для разбора и обсуждения в учебной аудитории. – Примеч. ред.

· #3

If it isn’t broke, don’t fix it – известное английское выражение, также часто переводится как не сломалось – не чини. – Примеч. ред.

· #4

В 2004 году компания Halliburton обвинялась в завышении цен и коррупции при выполнении государственных контрактов. Вокруг банкротства крупной корпорации Enron, случившемся в 2001 году, разразился грандиозный скандал. Он получил название Дело Enron. Компанию обвиняли в фальсификации отчетности, обмане инвесторов, проще говоря, в мошенничестве. С тех пор название Enron является символом корпоративного мошенничества и коррупции. – Примеч. ред.

· #5

Каждую минуту рождается лох – известное американское выражение, означающее, что мошенник всегда найдет себе жертву. Обычно эти слова приписываются американскому шоумену Ф.Т. Барнуму, хотя есть и другие версии авторства. – Примеч. ред.

· #6

Business-to-business – рынок корпоративных клиентов. – Примеч. ред.

· #7

Дифференцирующее преимущество – некое свойство товара, выгодно отличающее его от продукции конкурентов. – Примеч. ред.

· #8

Американская многопрофильная корпорация. – Примеч. ред.

· #9

Вероятно, имеется в виду так называемая черная пятница, которая наступает после Дня благодарения и открывает рождественский сезон распродаж. – Примеч. ред.

· #10

Ретейлер – компания, продающая товар, обычно массового потребления, в розницу. – Примеч. ред.

· #11

Демаркетинг – политика фирмы, направленная на уменьшение спроса на собственные товары. – Примеч. ред.

· #12

R&D – научно-исследовательские и опытно-конструкторские разработки. В русском языке понятие также используется аббревиатура НИОКР. – Примеч. ред.

· #13

Обыгрывается в названии компании: I (я) + team (команда) = iTeam (прим. пер.).

· #14

Микроменеджмент – стиль управления, отличающийся чрезмерным контролем над действиями подчиненных. – Примеч. ред.

· #15

Кастомизированный продукт – это товар, созданный для конкретного потребителя. – Примеч. ред.

· #16

Холодные контакты – любые виды общения с абсолютно незнакомыми людьми. – Примеч. ред.

· #17

PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) – международная сеть компаний, предоставляющих профессиональные услуги в сфере консалтинга и аудита. – Примеч. ред.

· #18

Также это понятие известно под названием пожизненная ценность клиента. – Примеч. ред.

· #19

Майкл Юджин Портер – американский экономист, профессор кафедры делового администрирования Гарвардской школы бизнеса. – Примеч. ред.

· #20

Раймонд Майлз – почетный профессор факультета управления бизнесом Калифорнийского университета в Беркли. Чарльз Сноу – профессор кафедры изучения организационного поведения Колледжа делового администрирования при Университете штата Пенсильвания. – Примеч. ред.

· #21

Нил Рэкхем – исследователь продаж и маркетинга, разработчик техники продаж по методу SPIN, консультант многих известных компаний. – Примеч. ред.

· #22

Метод предполагает осуществление множества мелких выборов, действие методом проб и ошибок и планирование следующих шагов на основе предыдущих. Чаще используется организациями, находящимися в сложной ситуации с массой неизвестных переменных. – Примеч. ред.

· #23

Также специалисты рекомендуют более простую систему, где в качестве основных единиц контроля используются только города, области и регионы. – Примеч. ред.

· #24

Дешевый алкоголь. – Прим. пер.

· #25

Винтажными называют вина определенного года (или из винограда урожая одного года), обладающие уникальными оттенками вкусов и ароматов. – Примеч. ред.

· #26

Автор использует в ином смысле термин instrumentality, иногда буквально переводимый как инструментальность, означающий степень убежденности работника в том, что вознаграждение будет получено немедленно после решения задачи. – Примеч. ред.

· #27

OEM (original equipment manufacturer – «оригинальный производитель оборудования») – организация, продающая под своим именем и брендом оборудование, произведенное другими предприятиями. – Примеч. ред.

· #28

Кооперативное поведение – неконфликтное поведение, характеризующееся взаимными уступками и компромиссами. Направлено на достижение целей совместными усилиями. – Примеч. ред.

· #29

Речь идет о США. – Примеч. ред.

· #30

Система поддержки принятия решений (СППР). – Примеч. ред.

· #31

Окончание работы в компании обозначено символом T.

· #32

Окончание работы в компании обозначено символом T.

· #33

Окончание работы в компании обозначено символом T.

· #34

Окончание работы в компании обозначено символом T.

· #35

Средний показатель составляет 50 пунктов. Чем больше показатель, тем выше удовлетворенность продавцов.

· #36

На основе анализа отчетов о встречах с клиентами и дистрибьюторами.

· #37

* Квоты по валовой прибыли регионов были разработаны федеральными менеджерами совместно с региональными.

· #38

* Включая программу дополнительных выплат, которая составляет 15 % от базового оклада.

** Оклад предшественника Джеймса Спрейга.

· #39

Ученое звание, присуждаемое в американской системе высшего образования. – Примеч. ред.

· #1

Rolph R. Anderson. Sales Management in the Millennium, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 16 (осень 1996). С. 17–32.

· #2

David W. Cravens. The Changing Role of the Sales Force, Marketing Management 4 (осень 1995). С. 49–57.

· #3

Neil Rackham and John DeVincintis. Rethinking the Sales Force. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999.

· #4

Thomas G. Brashear, Danny N. Bellenger, James S. Boles, and Hiram C. Barksdale, Jr. An Explanatory Study of the Relative Effectiveness of Different Types of Sales Force Mentors. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 26 (зима 2006). С. 7–18.

· #5

Jay P. Mulki, Jorge Fernando Jaramillo, and William B. Locander, Critical Role of Leadership on Ethical Climate and Salesperson Behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics 86 (май 2009). С. 125–131.

· #6

Lawrence B. Chonco, John F. Tanner, Jr., and Ellen Reid Smith. The Sales Force’s Role in International Marketing Research and Marketing Information Systems. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 11 (зима 1991). С. 69–79.

· #7

O.C. Ferrell, John Fraedrich, and Linda Ferrell. Business Ethics, 7-е изд. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2006.

· #8

Leonard L. Berry. On Great Service: A Framework for Action. New York: The Free Press, 1995.

· #9

David W. Cravens. The Changing Role of the Sales Force, Marketing Management 4 (зима 1995). С. 49–57.

· #10

Исследования в области удовлетворенности процессом работы были проведены и описаны Гилбертом А. Черчиллем (Gilbert A. Churchill), Нилом М. Фордом (Neil M. Ford) и Орвиллом С. Уокером (Orville C. Walker) в статье Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction of the Sales Force. Journal of Marketing Research (ноябрь 1976). С. 323–332. Подход и результаты исследования этой области оставались относительно постоянными более 30 лет.

· #11

Greg W. Marshall, Daniel J. Goebel, and William C. Moncrief. Hiring for Success at the Buyer-Seller Interface, Journal of Business Research 56 (апрель 2003). С. 247–255.

· #12

Thorsten Gruber, Alexander Reppel, Isabelle Szmigin and Roediger Voss. Revealing the Expectations and Preferences of Complaining Customers by Combining the Laddering Interviewing Technique with Kano Model of Customer Satisfaction, Qualitative Market Research 11, № 4 (2008). С. 400–413. Также см. Rosemary P. Ramsey and Ravi S. Sohi, Listening to Your Customers: The Impact of Perceived Salesperson Listening Behavior on Relationship Outcomes, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 25 (весна 1997). С. 127–137.

· #13

Adam Rapp, Raj Agnihotri, and Lukas P. Forbes. The Sales Force Technology-Performance Chain: The Role of Adaptive Selling and Effort. Journal of Personal Selling &Sales Management 28 (осень 2008). С. 335–350.

· #14

William C. Moncrief, Greg W. Marshall, Felicia G. Lassk. A Contemporary Taxonomy of Sales Positions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 26 (январь 2006). С. 56–65.

· #15

Derek A. Newton. Sales Force Performance and Turnover. Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute, 1973. С. 3.

· #16

Mary M. Long, Thomas Tellefsen, and J. David Lichtenthal. Internet Integration into Industrial 449 Selling Process: A Step-by-Step Approach, Industrial Marketing Management 36 (июль 2007). С. 676–689.

· #17

Benson P. Shapiro. Sales Program Management: Formulation and Implementation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977. С. 160.

· #18

Milt Grassell. What Purchasing Maangers Like in a Salesperson… and What Drives Them ip the Wall, Business Marketing (июнь 1986). С. 72–77. См. также Edith Cohen. The View from the Other Side, Sales & Marketing Management (June 1990). С. 108–110; and Ten Ways to Lose a Sale,Sales & Marketing Management (декабрь 1992). С. 35.

· #19

Goutam Challagalla, R. Venkatesh, and Ajay K. Kohlu. Proactive Postsales Service: When and Why Does It Pay Off? Journal of Marketing 73 (март 2009). С. 70–87.

· #20

Donald W. Jackson, Jr., Janet E. Keith, and Richard K. Burdick. Purchasing Agents’ Perceptions of Industrial Buying Center Influence: A Situational Approach, Journal of Marketing (осень 1984). С. 75–83.

· #21

Richard G. Jennings and Richard E. Plank. When the Purchasing Agent Is a Committee: Implications for Industrial Marketing, Industrial Marketing Management 24 (ноябрь 1995). С. 411–419.

· #22

Vince-Wayne Mitchel. Buy-Phase and Buy-Class Effects on Organizational Risk Perceptions and Reductions in Purchasing Professional Services, Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing 13, № 6 (1998). С. 461–471.

· #23

Jennings and Plank. When the Purchasing Agent Is a Committee.

· #24

Mark A. Moon and Susan Forquer Gupta, Examining the Formation of Selling Centers: A Conceptual Framework, Journal of personal Selling & Sales Management 17 (весна 1997). С. 31–42.

· #25

Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. Who Says Elephants Can’t Dance? New York: Harper Business, 2004.

· #26

Wesley J. Johnson and Jeffrey E. Lewin. Organizational Buying Behavior: Toward an Integrative Framework, Journal of Business Research 35 (январь 1996). С. 1–15.

· #27

Ajay K. Kohli and Bernard J. Jaworski. Market Orientation: The Construct, Research Propositions, and Managerial Implications, Journal of Marketing 54 (апрель 1990). С. 1–18; John C. Narver and Stanley F. Slater. The Effect of a Market Orientation on Business Profitability, Journal of Marketing (октябрь 1990). С. 20–35.

· #28

www.PricewaterhouseCoopers.com.

· #29

Don Peppers and Martha Rogers. One to One B2B: Customer Development Strategies for the Business-to-Business World. New York: Doubleday, 2001.

· #30

Ronald S. Swift. Accelerating Customer Relationships: Using CRM and Relationship Technologies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 2000. С. 42.

· #31

Sharad Borle, Siddharth S. Singth, and Dipak C. Jain. Customer Lifetime Value Measurement, Management Science 54 (январь 2008). С. 100–114.

· #32

Swift. Accelerating Customer Relationships, с… 39–42.

· #33

Ray McKenzie. The Relationship-Based Enterprise: Powering Business Success through Customer Relationship Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001. С. 7–8.

· #34

Тот же источник, с. 8.

· #35

Daniel G. Simpson. Why Most Strategic Planning Is a Waste of Time and What You Can Do about It,» Long Range Planning 31, № 3 (1998). С. 476–480.

· #36

Timothy N. Nolan, Leopold D. Goodstein, and Jeanette Goodstein. Applied Strategic Planning: An Introduction. San Francisco: Pfeiffer, 2008.

· #37

Raymond E. Miles and Charles C. Snow, Organizational Strategy, Structure and Process. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978. Рэймонд Майлз и Чарльз Сноу выделяли четвертую категорию видов бизнеса, которую они называли реакторы, но из-за того, что этот вид бизнеса не имеет четко определенных стратегий конкуренции, в данной книге мы его не рассматриваем.

· #38

Более подробно влияние стратегий конкуренции на стратегии маркетинга и продаж описаны в статье Орвилла С. Уокера (Orville C. Walker) и Роберта В. Рукерта (Robert W. Ruekert) Marketing’s Role in the Implementation of Business Strategies: A Critical and Conceptual Framework, Journal of Marketing (июль 1987). С. 15–33.

· #39

John F. Tanner, Jr. Users’ Role in the Purchase: Their Influence, Satisfaction, and Desire to Participate in the Next Purchase, Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 13, № 6 (1998). С. 479–491.

· #40

James P. Morgan and Shirley Cayer. Working with World-Class Suppliers: True Believers, Purchasing (август, 13, 1992). С. 50–52.

· #41

Для примера см. David A. Aaker. Managing Brand Equity. New York: The Free Press, 1991; Linda M. Keefe, Corporate Voice in Relation to Product Brands, Brands Management Journal 6 (1995). С. 45–49.

· #42

Более детальное обсуждение роли личных продаж и других средств продвижения в создании долгосрочных отношений с участниками каналов дистрибуции см. James A. Narus и James C. Anderson. Turn Your Industrial Distributors into Partners, Harvard Business Review (март – апрель 1986). С. 66–71; F. Robert Dwyer, Paul H. Shurr, and Sejo Oh, Developing Buyer-Seller Relationships, Journal of Marketing (апрель 1987). С. 11–27; Jan Heide and George John, Do Norms Matter in Marketing Relationships? Journal of Marketing (апрель 1992). С. 32–44.

· #43

Bill Saporito, Behind the Tumult at P&G. Fortune (март, 7, 1994). С. 74–82. Другие примеры, включая рынок B2B, см. Joseph B. Fuller, James O’Conor, and Richard Rawlinson, Tailored Logistics: The Next Advantage, Harvard Business Review (май-июнь 1993). С. 87–98l/ W. David Gibson, Holy Alliances, Sales & Marketing Management (июль 1993). С. 85–87.

· #44

Fredrick F. Reichheld. Loyalty and the Renaissance of Marketing, Marketing Management 2 (1994). С. 10–21.

· #45

Там же.

· #46

Louis V. Gerstner. Who Says Elephants Can’t Dance? New York: Harper Business, 2004.

· #47

Patricia Sellers. How to remake Your Sales Force, Fortune (May 4, 1992). С. 96–102.

· #48

Charles Shaw. The Rep and the Future – Which is Now, Agency Sales Magazine (январь 2001). С. 28–30.

· #49

Dan Hanover. Independents Day. Sales &Marketing Management (апрель 2000). С. 65–68. Endnotes 451.

· #50

Jayashree Mahajan, G.A. Churchill, Jr. N.M. Ford, and O.C. Walker, Jr. A Comparison of the Impact of Organizational Climate on the Job Satisfaction of Manufacturers’ Angents and Company Salespeople: An Exploratory Study, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (май 1984). С. 1–10.

· #51

Allen M. Weiss and Erin Anderson, Converting from Independent to Employee Salesforces: The Role of Perceived Switching Costs, Journal of Marketing Research (февраль 1992). С. 101–115.

· #52

Bernard J. Jaworski. Toward a Theory of Marketing Control: Environment Context, Control Types, and Consequences. Journal of Marketing (июль 1988). С. 23–39.

· #53

Erin Anderson. The Salespeople as Outside Agent or Employee: A Transaction Cost Analysis. Marketing Science 4 (1985). С. 234–254.

· #54

Erin Anderson and Barton Weilz. The Use of Pledges to Build and Sustain Commitment in Distribution Channels. Journal of Marketing Research (февраль 1992). С. 18–34.

· #55

Robert W. Ruekert, Orville C. Walker, Jr., and Kenneth J. Roering. The Organization of Marketing Activities: A Contingency Theory of Structure and Performance. Journal of Marketing (зима 1985). С. 13–25.

· #56

Francy Blackwood. Did you Sell $5 Million Last Year? Selling (октябрь 1995), стр. 44–53.

· #57

David A. Andelman. Betting on the Net. Sales &marketing Management (июнь 1995). С. 47–59.

· #58

Robert J. Hershock. Notes from the Revolution, in Reinventing the Sales Organization. New York: The Conference Board, 1995. С. 10–13.

· #59

Arun Sharma. Who Prefers Key Account Management Programs? An Investigation of Business Buying Behavior and Buying Firm Characteristics, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales management (осень 1997). С. 27–39. Также см. Catherine Pardo, Key Account Management in the Business to Business Field: The Key Account’s Point of View, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales management (осень 1997). С. 17–26.

· #60

Frederick F. Reichheld, Loyalty and the Renaissance of Marketing. Marketing Management 2 (1994). С. 10–21; Rahul Jacob, Why Some Customers Are More Equal than Others, Fortune (сентябрь, 19, 1994). С. 215–224; Sangit Sungupta, Robert E. Krapfel, and Michael Pusateri, Switching Costs in Key Account Relationships. Journal of Personal Selling & Selling Management (осень 1997). С. 9–16.

· #61

Benson P. Shapiro and Rowland T. Moriarity. Organizing the National Account Force. Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute, 1984. С. 1–37; Jerome A. Colleti and Gary S. Tubridy, Effective Major Account Sales Management. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (август 1987). С. 1–10.

· #62

Mark A. Moon and Susan Forquer Gupta, Examining the Formation of Selling Centers: A Conceptual Framework. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (Spring 1997). С. 31–42.

· #63

Andy Cohen. Top of the Charts-Lear Corporation. Sales & Marketing Management (июль 1998). С. 40.

· #64

Geoffrey Brewer. Lou Gerstner Has His Hands Full. Sales & Marketing Management (май 1998). С. 36–41.

· #65

Dan T. Dunne, Jr., and Claude A. Thomas. Strategy for Systems Sellers: A Team Approach. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (август 1986). С. 1–10. См. также C. Jay Lambe, Kevin L. Webb, and Chiharu Ishida, Self-Managing Selling Teams and Team Performance: The Complementary Roles of Empowerment and Control. Industrial Marketing Management 38 (январь 2009). С. 5–16.

· #66

Andy Cohen. Top of the Charts-Pfizer. Sales & Marketing Management (июль 1998). С. 41.

· #67

Yingli Wang, Andrew Potter, and Mohamed Naim. Electronic Marketplaces for Tailored Logistics. Industrial Management & Data Systems 107, № 8 (2007). С. 1170–1187.

· #68

Barry Farber and Joyce Wycoff. Customers Service: Evolution and Revolution, Sales & Marketing Management (май 1991). С. 44–51.

· #69

Обсуждение достоинств и недостатков аутсорсинга в сфере продаж см. Andris A. Zoltners, Prabhakant Sinha, and Greggor A. Zoltners. The complete Guide to Accelerating Sales Force Performance. New York: AMACOM, 2001. С. 34.

· #70

For a discussion of some other, less common forecasting techniques, see Spyros Makridakis, Steven C. Wheelwright. and Rob J. Hyndman. Forecasting: Methods and Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997.

· #71

См. также статью David M. Georgoff and Robert Murdick. Manager’s Guide to Forecasting Harvard Busmen Review 64 (январь – февраль 1986). С. 110–120, которая включает таблицу, сравнивающую 20 методов прогнозирования по 16 критериям.

· #72

C. I. Jain. Delphi-Forecast with Experts’ Opinion. Journal of Business Forecasting 4 (зима 1985–86). С. 22–23.

· #73

Peter J. Brockwell and Richard A. Davis. Introduction to Time Series and Forecasting. New York: Springer– Verlag, 1996.

· #74

Spyros Makridakis et al. The Accuracy of Extrapolation (Times-Series) Methods: Results of a Forecasting Competition, Journal of Forecasting 1 (апрель – июнь 1982). С. 111–153.

· #75

Spyros Makridakis and Michele Hibon. Accuracy of Forecasting: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 142. Часть 2 (1979). С. 97–145. См. также Robin M. Hogarth and Spyros Makridakis, Forecasting and Planning: An Evaluation. Management Science 27 (февраль 1981). С. 115–138.

· #76

Mark M. Mortality and Arthur J. Adams. Management Judgment Forecasts, Composite Forecasting Models, and Conditional Efficiency. Journal of Marketing Research 21 (август 1984). С. 239–250.

· #77

Pierre Wack. Scenarios: Shooting the Rapids, Harvard Business Review 63 (ноябрь – декабрь 1985). С. 146. См. также Peter W. Beck, Debate over Alternate Scenarios Replaces Forecasts at Shell U.K. Journal of Business Forecasting 3 (весна 1984). С. 2–6.

· #78

Ссылка на 2005 Survey of Buying Power and Media Markets. Sales & Marketing Management (сентябрь 2005).

· #79

Wack, Scenarios: Shooting the Rapids.

· #80

Alan J. Dubinsky and Thomas E. Barry. A Survey of Sales Management Practices, Industrial Marketing Management 11 (апрель 1982). С. 133–141.

· #81

Walter J. Talley, Jr. How to Design Sales Territories, Journal of Marketing 25 (январь 1961). С. 7–13.

· #82

Donald L. Brady Determining the Value of an Industrial Prospect: A Prospect Preference Index Model, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 7 (август 1987). С. 27–32.

· #83

Walter J Semlow. How Many Salesmen Do You Need? Harvard Business Review 37 (май – июнь 1959). С. 126–132. См. также Charles B. Weinberg and Harry C. Lucas, Jr. Semlow’s Results Are Based on a Spurious Relationship. Journal of Marketing 41 (апрель 1977). С. 146–147.

· #84

Zarrell Lambert and Fred W. Kniffen. Response Functions and Their Applications in Sales Force Management, Southern Journal of Business 5 (январь 1970). С. 1–9.

· #85

A. Parasureman. An Approach for Allocating Sales Call Effort. Industrial Marketing Management 11 (1982). С. 75–79; Renato Fiocca, Account Portfolio Analysis for Strategy Development. Industrial Marketing Management 11 (1982). С. 53–62; Rosann L. Spiro and William D. Perreault, Jr., Factors Influencing Sales Call Frequency of Industrial Salespeople. Journal of Business Research 6 (январь 1978). С. 1–15.

· #86

Fiocca. Account Portfolio Analysis for Strategy Development; Raymond W. LaForge and David W. Cravens, Steps in Selling Effort Deployment. Industrial Marketing Management 11 (1982). С. 183–194; David W. Cravens and Raymond W. LaForge, Salespeople Deployment Analysis. Industrial Marketing Management 12 (июль 1983). С. 179–192; Alan J. Dubinsky and Thomas N. Ingram, A Portfolio Approach to Account Profitability. Industrial Marketing Management 13 (февраль 1984). С. 33–41.

· #87

Raymond W. LaForge and David W. Cravens. Empirical and Judgment-Based Sales-Force Decision Models: A Comparative Assessment. Decision Sciences 16 (весна 1985). С. 177–195.

· #88

Adrian B. Ryans and Charles B. Weinberg. Territory Sales Response Models: Stability over Time. Journal of Marketing Research 24 (май 1987). С. 229–233.

· #89

Sales Analysis. Studies in Business Policy, № 13. New York: National Industrial Conference Board, 1965. С. 3.

· #90

Эта глава во многом основана на следующих источниках: Orville C. Walker, Jr., Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr., and Neil M. Ford, Motivation and Performance in Industrial Selling: Present Knowledge and Needed Research. Journal of Marketing Research 14 (май 1977). С. 156–168. См. также Steven P. Brown, William Cron, and John W. Slocum, Jr., Effects of Goal-Directed Emotions on Salesperson Volitions, C. Fred Miao and Kenneth R. Evans. The Impact of Salesperson Motivation on Role Perceptions and Job Performance-A Cognitive and Affective Perspective. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 27 (зима 2007). С. 89–101.

· #91

For studies of how role perceptions can affect salespeople’s job satisfaction and performance, см. Douglas N. Behrman and William D. Perreault, Jr. A Role Stress Model of the Performance and Satisfaction of Industrial Salespeople. Journal of Marketing 48 (осень 1984). С. 9–21; George J. Avlonitis and Nikolaos G. Panagopoulos. Role Stress, Attributes, and Job Outcomes in Business-to-Business Selling: Does the Type of Selling Situation Matter? Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 26 (зима 2006). С. 68–77; Charles K. Pettijohn, Linda S. Pettijohn, and A. J. Taylor. Does Salesperson Perception of the Importance of Sales Skills Improve Sales Performance, Customer Orientation, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment and Reduce Turnover? Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 27 (зима 2007). С. 75; Kenneth R Evans, Timothy D. Landry, Po-Chien Li, and Shaoming Zou. How Sales Controls Affect Job-Related Outcomes: The Role of Organizational Sales-Related Psychological Climate Perceptions. Academy of Marketing Science Journal 35 (сентябрь 2007). С. 445.

· #92

R. Kenneth Teas. Supervisory Behavior, Role Stress, and the Job Satisfaction of Industrial Salespeople. Journal of Marketing Research 20 (февраль 1983), стр. 84–91; Ajay K. Kohli. Some Unexplored Supervisory Behavior and Their Influence on Salespeople’s Role Clarity, Specific Job Esteem, Job Satisfaction, and Motivation. Journal of Marketing Research 22 (ноябрь 1985). С. 424–433. См. также Goutam N. Challagalla and Tasaddug A. Servani. Dimensions and Types of Supervisory Control Effects of Salesperson Performance and Satisfaction. Journal of Marketing (январь 1996). С. 89–105; Thomas E. DeCarlo, R. Kenneth Teas, and James C. McElroy. Salesperson Performance Attributions Process and the Formulation of Expectancy Estimates. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (лето 1997). С. 1–17; Douglas Amyx and Bruce L. Alford. The Effects of Salesperson Need for Achievement and Sales Manager Leader Reward Behavior. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (осень 2005). С. 346–359; Tarб Lopez and McMillan-Capehart. Elements of Salespeople Control: An Organization Theory Perspective. The Journal of Business & Industrial MArketing 24 (2009). С. 98.

· #93

Guenzi, Paolo, Luigi M. DeLuca, and Gabriele Troilo. Organizational Drivers of Salespeople’s Customer Orientation and Selling Orientation. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 31 (лето 2011). С. 269–286. Barton A. Weitz. A Critical Review of Personal Selling Research: The Need for Contingency Approaches, in Critical Issues in Sales Management, eds. Albaum and Churchill, Jr., с. 76–126; John Andy Wood. NLP Revisited: Nonverbal Communications and Signals of Trustworthiness. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 26 (весна 2006), стр. 198–204; Arun Sharma, Michael Levy, and Heiner Evanschitzky. The Variance in Sales Performance Explained by the Knowledge Structure of Salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 27 (весна 2007). С. 169.

· #94

Siew Meng Leong, Paul S. Busch, and Deborah Roedder John. Knowledge Bases and Salesperson Effectiveness: A Script-Theoretic Analysis. Journal of Marketing Research 26 (май 1990). С. 164–178; Richard G. McFarland and Blair Kidwell. An Examination of Instrumental and Expressive Traits on Performance: The Mediating Role of Learning, Prove, and Avoid Goal Orientations. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 26 (весна 2006). С. 143–159.

· #95

R. Kenneth Teas. An Empirical Test of Models of Salespersons’ Job Expectancy and Instrumentality Perceptions. Journal of Marketing Research 18 (май 1981), стр. 209–226. Для эмпирического доказательства того, какие вещи мотивируют продавцов в США и сравнение с мотивацией продавцов в других странах, см. Alex Palmer, Success in Small Steps. Incentive 183 (февраль 2009). С. 44–46.

· #96

Artur Baldauf, David W. Cravens, и Nigel F. Piercy. Examining Business Strategy, Sales Management, and Salesperson Antecedents of Sales Organization Effectiveness. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (весна 2001). С. 109–122; Ken Grant, David W. Cravens, George S. Low, and William C. Moncrief. The Role of Satisfaction with Territory Design on Motivation, Attitudes, and Work Outcomes of Salespeople. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (весна 2001). С. 165–178; John W. Barnes, Donald W. Jackson, Jr., Michael D. Hutt, and Ajith Kumar. The Role of Culture Strength in Shaping Sales Force Outcomes. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 26 (лето 2006). С. 255–270.

· #97

Take a Right and… Sales & Marketing Management (сентябрь 1997). С. 91–96.

· #98

Baker, Sunny and Kim Baker, Divide and Conquer. Journal of Business Strategy 20, № 5 (сентябрь/ октябрь 1999). С. 16–19; Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr., Neil M. Ford, and Orville C. Walker, Jr. Motivating the Industrial Salesforce: The Attractiveness of Alternative Rewards. Journal of Business Research 7 (1979). С. 25–50; William L. Cron and John W. Slocum, Jr. The Influence of Career Stages on Salespeople’s Job Attitudes, Work Perceptions, and Performance. Journal of Marketing Research 23 (май 1986). С. 119–129; Lawrence B. Chonko, John F. Tanner, and William A. Weeks. Selling and Sales Management in Action: Reward Preferences of Salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 12 (лето 1992). С. 67–75; William A. Weeks, Terry W. Loe, Lawrence B. Chonko, Carlos Ruy Martinez, and Kirk Wakefield. Cognitive Moral Development and the Impact of Perceived Organizational Ethical Climate on the Search for Sales Force Excellence: A Cross-Cultural Study. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 26 (весная 2006). С. 206–217.

· #99

Для описания процедур построения таблицы см. Gilbert A. Churchil, Jr., Neil M. Ford, and Orville C. Walker, Jr. Measuring the Job Satisfaction of Industrial Salesmen. Journal of Marketing Research 11 (август 1974). С. 254–260. Также см. Rosemary U. Lagace, Jerry R. Goolsby, and Jule ft. Gassenheimer. Scaling and Measurement: A Quasi-Replicative Assessment of a Revised Version of Indsales. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 13 (зима 1993). С. 65–72.

· #100

Te-Lin, Chung, Brian Rutherford and Jungkun Park. Understanding multifacted job satisfaction of retail employees. International journal of Retail and Distribution Management 40, № 9 (2012). С. 699–716. Steven P. Brown and Robert A. Peterson. Antecedents and Consequences of Salesperson Job Satisfaction: Meta-Analysis and Assessment of Causal Effects. Journal of Marketing Research 30 (февраль 1993). С. 63–77.

· #101

Обсуждение процесса социализации см. Alan J. Dubinsky et al. Salesforce Socialization. Journal of Marketing 50 (октябрь 1986), стр. 192–207.

· #102

Grant, Stephen E. and Alan J. Bush. Salesforce Socialization tactics: Building Organizational value congruence. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 16 (лето 1996), стр. 17–32, и Todd D. Donovan, Xiang Fang, Neeli Bendapudi, Surendra N. Singh. Applying Interactional Psychology to Salesforce Management, a Socialization Illustration. Qualitative Market Research, V. 7 (2004). С. 139–152; Sparks, John R. and Joseph A. Schenk, Socialization Communication, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, and Sales in a Multi-level Organization. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 26 (весна 2006). С. 161–180; Cynthia D. Fisher and Richard Gitelson, A Meta-Analysis of the Correlates of Sole Conflict and Ambiguity. Journal of Applied Psychology 68 (May 1983), стр. 320–333. См. также Rosemary Ramsey Lagace. Role Stress Differences between Salesmen and Saleswomen: Effect on Job Satisfaction a id Performance. Psychological Reports 62 (июнь 1988). С. 815–825; Jagdip Singh, Boundary Role Ambiguity: Facets, Determinants, and Impacts. Journal of Marketing 57 (апрель 1993). С. 11–31; James S. Boles, John Andy Wood, and Julie Johnson. Interrelationships of Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, and Work-Family Conflict with Different facets of job Satisfaction and the Moderating Effects of Gender. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 23 (весна 2003). С. 99.

· #103

Jaramillo, Fernando, Jay Prakash Mulki, and James S. Boles. Workspace Stressors, Job Attitude, and Job Behaviors: Is Interpersonal Conflict the Missing Link? Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 31 (весна 2011). С. 339–356, and Connors William, RIM Objects to Survey Showing Weak BlackBerry Developer Outlook. Wall Street Journal, июль, 26, 2012, http://blogs.wsj.com/canadarealtime/2012/07/13/rim-objects-to-survey-showing-weak-blackberry-developer-outlook/

· #104

Goutam Challagalla, Tasaddug Shervani, and George Huber. Supervisory Orientations and Salespeople Work Outcomes: The Moderating Effect of Salesperson Location. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 20 (лето 2000), стр. 161–171; Daniel Tyran. Out of the Office, But Never Out of Reach. Sales & Marketing Management 155 (январь 2003). С. 18–19.

· #105

Neil M. Ford, Orville C Walker, Jr., and Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr. Expectation-Specific Measures of the Intersender Conflict and Role Ambiguity Experienced by Industrial Salesmen. Journal of Business Research 3 (апрель 1975). С. 95–112; Kris Maher. Stressed Out: Can Workplace Stress Get Worse? The Wall Street Journal (январь, 16, 2001), p. B-6; Greg W. Marshall, Daniel J. Goebel, and William C. Moncrief. Hiring for Success at the Buyer-Seller Interface. Journal of Business Research 56 (апрель 2003). С. 247.

· #106

Douglas N. Behrman and William D. Perrault, Jr. A Role Stress Model of the Performance and Satisfaction of Industrial Salespeople. Journal of Marketing 48 (осень 1984). С. 9–21; Richard P. Bagozzi. The Role of Social and Self-Conscious Emotions in the Regulation of Business-to-Business Relationships in Salesperson-Customer Interactions. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 21 (2006). С. 453.

· #107

Kahn и соавт. Organizational Stress, с. 72–95; Ajay K. Kohli. Some Unexplored Supervisory Behaviors and Their Influence on Salespeople’s Role Clarity, Specific Self-Esteem, Job Satisfaction and Motivation, Journal of Marketing Research 22 (ноябрь 1985). С. 424–433; Louis W. Fry, Charles M. Futrell, A. Parasureman, and Margaret Chmielewski, An Analysis of Alternate Causal Models of Salesperson Role Perceptions and Work-Related Attitudes. Journal of Marketing Research 23 (май 1986). С. 153–163; Jeffrey Sager. A Structural Model Depicting Salespeople’s Job Stress. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 22 (зима 1994). С. 74–84.

· #108

R. Kenneth Teas, John G. Wacker, and R. Eugene Hughes. A Path Analysis of Causes and Consequences of Salespeople’s Perceptions of Role Clarity. Journal of Marketing Research 16 (август 1979). С. 355–369; Richard P. Bagazzi. The Nature and Causes of Self-Esteem, Performance, and Satisfaction in the Sales Force: A Structural Equation Approach. Journal of Business 53 (1980). С. 315–331, Gary K. Rhoads, Jagdip Singth, and Phillips W. Goodell. The Multiple Dimensions of Role Ambiguity and Their Impact upon Psychological and Behavioral Outcomes of Industrial Salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 14 (лето 1994). С. 1–24; Vincent Onyemah, Role Ambiguity. Role Conflict and Performance: Empirical Evidence of an Inverted-U Relationship. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 28 (лето 2008). С. 299.

· #109

Weeks, William A., Christophe Fournier. The Impact of Time Congruity on Salesperson’s Role Stress. A Person-Job Fit Approach. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 30 (лето 2010). С. 209–2 22; Charles M. Futrell and A. Parasuraman. The Relationship of Satisfaction and Performance to Salesforce Turnover, Journal of Marketing 48 (осень 1984). С. 33–40; George H. Lucas, Jr., и соавт., An Empirical Study of Salesforce Turnover. Journal of Marketing 51 (июль 1987). С. 34–59; Terence L. Holmes and Rajesh Srivastava. Effects of Job Perceptions on Job Behaviors: Implications for Sales Performance. Industrial Marketing Management 31 (август 2002). С. 421.

· #110

DeConinck, James B. and Julie T. Johnson. The Effects of Perceived Supervisor Support, Perceived Organizational Support, and Organizational Justice on Turnover Among Salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 29 (Fall 2009), pp. 333-351. Richard P. Bagozzi. Salesforce Performance and Satisfaction as a Function of Individual Difference, Interpersonal, and Situational Factors. Journal of Marketing Research 15 (ноябрь 1978). С. 517–531; Ryan D. Zimmerman and Todd C. Darnold. The Impact of Job Performance on Employee Turnover Intentions and the Voluntary Turnover Process; A Meta-Analysis and Path Model. Personnel Review 38 (2009). С. 142; Wouter Vandenabeele. The Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment on Self Reported Performance: More Robust Evidence of the PSM-Performance Relationship. International Review of Administrative Sciences 75 (март 2009). С. 11.

· #111

Rapp, Adam, Raj Agnihotri, and Thomas L. Baker. Conceptualizing Salesperson Competitive Intelligence: An individual Level Perspective. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 31 (весна 2011). С. 141–156. Lawrence B. Chonko, Roy D. Howell, and Danny N. Bellenger. Consequence in Sales Force Evaluation: Relation to Sales Force Perceptions of Conflict and Ambiguity. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 6 (май 1986). С. 35–48.

· #112

Тот же источник.

· #113

Lawrence B. Chonko. The Relationship of Span of Control to Sales Representatives: Experienced Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity. Academy of Management Journal, 25 (июнь 1982). С. 452–456; Shelby D. Hunt and Arturo Z. Vasquez-Parraga. Organizational Consequences, Marketing Ethics, and Salesforce Supervision. Journal of Marketing Research 30 (февраль 1993). С. 78–90; Linda S. Hartenian, Farrand J. Hadaway, and Gordon J. Badovick. Antecedents and Consequences of Role Perceptions: A Path Analytic Approach. Journal of Applied Business Research 10 (весна 1994). С. 40–50.

· #114

Valentine, Sean. Ethics Training, Ethical Context, and Sales and Marketing Professionals’ Satisfaction with Supervisors and Coworkers. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 29 (лето 2009). С. 227–242; Susan Powell Mantel. Choice or Perception: How Affect Influences Ethics Choices Among Salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 25 (зима 2005). С. 43–55. Paul Busch. The Sales Manager’s Bases of Social Power and Influence upon the Sales Force. Journal of Marketing 44 (лето 1980). С. 91–101; Ronald E. Michaels, William L. Cron, Alan J. Dubinskv, and Erich A. Joachimsthaler, Influence of Formalization on the Organizational Commitment and Work Alienation of Salespeople and Industrial Buyers. Journal of Marketing Research 25 (ноябрь 1988). С. 376–383.

· #115

Pradeep K. Tyagi. The Effects of Stressful Organizational Conditions on Salesperson Work Motivation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 13 (зима – весна 1985). С. 290–309; Susan M. Keaveney and James E. Nelson. Coping with Organizational Role Stress: Intrinsic Motivational Orientation, Perceived Role Benefits and Psychological Withdrawal. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 21 (весна 1993). С. 113–124; C. Fred Miao and Kenneth R. Evans. The Impact of Salesperson Motivation on Role Perceptions and Job Performance: A Cognitive and Affective Perspective. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 27 (зима 2007). С. 89. Rutherford, Brian, JungKun Park, and Sang-Lin. Increasing Job Performance and Descreasing Salesperson Propensity to Leave: An Examination in an Asian Sales Force. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 31 (весна 2011). С. 171–184.

· #116

Greg W. Marshall, William C. Moncrief, and Felicia G. Lassk. The Current State of Sales Force Activities. Industrial Marketing Management 28 (1999). С. 87–98; William C. Moncrief, Selling Activity and Sales Position Taxonomies for Industrial Salesforces. Journal of Marketing research 23 (август 1986). С. 261–270; Robert E. Hite and Joseph A. Bellizzi. Differences in the Importance of Selling Techniques between Consumer and Industrial Salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 5 (ноябрь 1985). С. 19–30.

· #117

Suzy Ramlal, Review of Employee Motivation Theories and Their Implications for Employee Retention within Organizations. Journal of American Academy of Business 5 (September 2004). С. 52–64.

· #118

Обсуждение мотивационных теорий и их взаимодействие см. James L. Gibson, John M. Ivancevich, and James H. Donnelly, Jr. Organizations: Behavior, Structure, Processes, 7th ed. Homewood. IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1991; Mary D. Stecher and Joseph G. Rosse. Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice Through Process Theories of Motivation: A Teaching Module and Simulation. Journal of Management Education 31 (December 2007). С. 777–796.

· #119

Barton A. Weitz, Harish Sujan, and Mita Sujan. Knowledge, Motivation, and Adaptive Behavior: A Framework for Improving Selling Effectiveness. Journal of Marketing (октябрь 1986). С. 174–191. См. также Harish Sujan. Smarter versus Harder: An Exploratory Attributional Analysis of Salespeople’s Motivation. Journal of Marketing Research (февраль 1986). С. 41–49; Kirk Smith, Eli Jones, and Edward Blair. Managing Salesperson Motivation in a Territory Realignment. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 20 (осень 2000). С. 215–226; Dana James, Web Conferencing. Talk Eases Salespeople’s Fears, Marketing News (ноябрь, 19, 2001). С. 4–5.

· #120

Этот аргумент часто является весомым; например, продавцам следует дать возможность самим назначать цену, т. к. именно они взаимодействуют с покупателями и лучше знают, какая цена будет приемлемой для совершения сделки. Интересен следующий факт: одно из исследований выявило, что среди 108 исследуемых компаний те, которые вели жесткую ценовую политику, имели наименьшее число продаж и самые низкие показатели прибыли. См. P. Ronald Stephenson, William L. Cron, and Gary L. Frazier. Delegating Pricing Authority in the Sales Force: The Effects on Sales and Profit Performance. Journal of Marketing (Spring 1979). С. 21–28. См. также Richard Kern. Letting Your Salespeople Set Prices (Sort Of). Sales & Marketing Management (August 1989). С. 44–49; Thomas E. DeCarlo, R. Kenneth Teas, and James C. McElroy. Salesperson Attribution Process and the Formation of Expectancy Estimates. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 17 (Summer 1997). С. 1–17.

· #121

Abraham k. Korman. Expectations as Determinants of Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology 55 (1971). С. 218–222; Roy D. Howell, Danny N. Bellenger, and James B. Wilcox. Self-Esteem, Role Stress, and Job Satisfaction among Marketing Managers. Journal of Business Research (February 1987). С. 71–84. Также см. Jeffrey Sager, Junsub Yi, and Charles M. Futrell. A Model of Depicting Salesperson’s Perceptions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 18 (лето 1998). С. 1–22; Marc-Andrй Reinhard and Oliver Dickhдuser. Need for Cognition, Task Difficulty, and the Formation of Performance Expectancies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96 (май 2009). С. 1062.

· #122

Rosemary Lagace, Stephen B. Castleberry, and Rick Ridnour. An Exploratory Salesforce Study of the Relationship between Lead-Member Exchange and Motivation, Role Stress, and Manager Evaluation. Journal of Applied Business Research (осень 1993). С. 110–119; Julia Chang, Happy Sales Force. Happy Returns. Sales & Marketing Management 158 (март 2006). С. 32–34.

· #123

Jaramillo, Fernando, Douglas B. Grisaffe, Lawrence B. Chonko, and James A. Roberts. Examining the Impact of Servant Leadership on Sales Force Performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 29 (лето 2009). С. 257–276, James B. DeConinck. The Effects of Leader-Member Exchange and Organizational Identification on Performance and Turnover Among Salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 31 (Winter 2011). С. 21–34. Edward F.. Lawler III, Pay and Organizational Effectiveness: A Psychological View. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971; Malcolm Fleschner, Manager as Motivator. SellingPower.com (июнь, 13, 2001); Sales & Marketing Management (август 2001). С. 62.

· #124

AlfieKohn. Punished be Rewards. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1993. См. также William Keenan, Jr., Breaking with Tradition, Sales & Marketing Management (июнь 1994). С. 94–99.

· #125

Например см. Thomas N. Ingram and Danny N. Bellenger. Personal and Organizational Variables: Their Relative Effect on Reward Valences of Industrial Salespeople, Journal of Marketing Research (май 1983). С. 198–205; Lawrence B. Chonko, John F. Tanner, Jr., and William A. Weeks. Reward Preferences of Salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (лето 1992). С. 67–76; Thomas E. DeCarlo, R. Kenneth Teas, and James C. McElroy. Salesperson Performance Attribution and Processes and Formation of Expectancy Estimates. Journal of Personal Selling &Sales Management (лето 1997). С.1–17; Alexander D. Stajkovic and Fred Luthans. Differential Effects of Incentive Motivators on Work Experience. Academy of Management Journal 4, № 3 (2001). С. 580–590. Интересное межкультурное сравнение ценности вознаграждения, ожиданий и взаимопомощи среди сбытового персонала в Соединенных Штатах, Корее и Японии см. Alan J. Dubinsky, Masaaki Kotabe, Chae Un Lim, and Ronald E. Michaels. Differences in Motivational Perceptions among U.S., Japanese, and Korean Sales Personnel. Journal of Business Research 30 (1994). С. 175–185; Jennifer Gilbert, What Motivates Me. Sales & Marketing Management 155 (февраль 2003). С. 30–35.

· #126

Miao, C. Fred and Kenneth R. Evans. The Impact of Salesperson Motivation on Role Perceptions and Job Performance: A Cognitive and Affective Perspective. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 27 (зима 2007). С. 89–101; Sales & Marketing Management, March 2001, с. 14.

· #127

Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr., Neil M. Ford, and Orville C. Walker, Jr. Predicting a Salesperson’s Job Effort and Performance: Theoretical, Empirical, and Methodological Considerations, in Sales Management: New Developments from Behavioral and Decision Model Research, под редакцией Richard P. Bagozzi. Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute, 1979. С. 3–39; Gordon T. Gray and Stacia Wert-Gray. Decision-Making Processes and Formation of Salespeople’s Expectancies, Instrumentalities, and Valences. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 19 (лето 1999). С. 53–59.

· #128

Исследование продавцов промышленной продукции см. Richard L. Oliver. Expectancy Theory Predictions of Salesmen’s Performance. Journal of Marketing Research (август 1974). С. 243–253.

· #129

Абрахам Маслоу. Мотивация и личность (Abraham H. Maslow. Motivation and Personality, 2nd ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1970; David L. Rennie. Two Thoughts on Abraham Maslow. The Journal of Humanistic Psychology 48 (октябрь 2008). С. 445.

· #130

Frederick Herzberg, Bernard Mauser, and Barbara Snyderman. The Motivation to Work, 2-е изд. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1959. См. также Robert Berl, Terry Powell, and Nicholas C. Williamson. Industrial Salesforce Satisfaction and Performance with Herzberg’s Theory. Industrial Marketing Management (февраль 1984). С. 11–19; David D. Shipley and Julia A. Kiely. Industrial Salesforce Motivation and Herzberg’s Dual Factor Theory: A U.K. Perspective. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (май 1986) с. 9–16; David Hackett, Bespoke Bonus. Marketing Week 24, № 12 (2001). С. 45.

· #131

Clayton P. Alderfer. An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Needs. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 4 (1969). С. 142–175; Larry E. Pate, Understanding Human Behaviour. Management Decision 25 (1987). С. 58–64.

· #132

Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr., Neil M. Ford, and Orville C. Walker, Jr. Personal Characteristics of Salespeople and the Attractiveness of Alternative Rewards, Journal of Business Research 7 (1979). С. 25–50; Robert L. Berl, Nicholas C. Williamson, and Terry Powell. Industrial Salesforce Motivation: A Critique and Test of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (май 1984). С. 33–39.

· #133

См. Lawler. Pay and Organizational Effectiveness, особенно, с. 46–59. Maslow, Motivation and Personality, 2-е изд. New York; Harper & Row, 1970.

· #134

Wesley J. Johnston and Keysuk Kim. Performance, Attribution, and Expectancy Linkages in Personal Selling. Journal of Marketing (октябрь 1994). С. 68–81; Thomas E. DeCarlo, R. Kenneth Teas, and James C. McElroy. Salesperson Performance Attribution Process and the Formation of Expectancy Estimates. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 17 (лето 1997). С. 1–17.

· #135

David C. McClelland, John W. Atkinson, Russell A. Clark, and Edgar L. Lowell. The Achievement Motive. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts 1953; John W. Atkinson. An Introduction to Motivation. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 1964; Murray R. Barrick, Greg L. Steward, and Mike Piotrowski. Personality and Job Performance: Test of the Mediating Effects of Motivation Among Sales Representatives. Journal of Applied Psychology 87 (февраль 2002). С. 43.

· #136

См. например E. E. Lawler III. Job Attitudes and Employee Motivation: Theory, Research, and Practice. Personnel Psychology 23 (1970). С. 223–237; Julian B. Rotter. Generalized Expectancies for Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied (1966). С. 80; Michael L. Mallin, and Michael Mayo. Why Did I Lose? A Conservation of Resources View of Salesperson Failure Attributions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 26 (осень 2006). С. 345; J. K. Sager, H. D. Strutton, and D. A. Johnson. Core Self-Evaluations and Salespeople, Psychology & Marketing 23 (февраль 2006). С. 95.

· #137

J. K. Sager, H. D. Strutton, and D. A. Johnson. Core Self-Evaluations and Salespeople. Psychology & Marketing 23 (февраль 2006). С. 95.

· #138

Abraham K. Korman. Expectancies as Determinants of Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology 55 (1971). С. 218–222; Lawler, «Job Attitudes, с. 223–237; Anonymous. The ‘Outcomes Approach to Motivation. Manager’s Magazine 59 (ноябрь 1984). С. 32–35.

· #139

Ingram and Bellenger. Personal and Organizational Variables, с. 203–204.

· #140

R. Kenneth Teas and James O. McElroy. Causal Attributions and Expectancy Estimates: A Framework for Understanding the Dynamics of Salesforce Motivation. Journal of Marketing (январь 1986). С. 75–86; DeCarlo, Teas, and McElroy. Salesperson Performance Attribution Processes; Johnston and Kim, Performance, Attribution, arid Expectancy Linkages; Andrea L. Dixon, Rosann L. Spiro, and Maqbul Jamil. Successful and Unsuccessful Sales Calls; Measuring Salesperson Attributions and Behavioral Intentions. Journal of Marketing 65, № 3 (2001). С. 64–78.

· #141

Karen E. Flaherty and James M. Pappas. Using Career Stage Theory to Predict Turnover Intentions Among Salespeople. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 10 (лето 2002). С. 48–57. См. также Sujan, Smarter versus Harder.

· #142

William L. Cron. Industrial Salesperson Development: A Career Stages Perspective. Journal of Marketing (осень 1984). С. 41–52; William L. Cron and John W. Slocum, Jr. The Influence of Career Stages on Salespeople’s Job Attitudes, Work Perceptions, and Performance. Journal of Marketing Research (май 1986). С. 119–129; William L Cron, Alan J. Dubinsky, and Ronald K. Michaels. The Influence of Career Stages on Components of Salesperson Motivation. Journal of Marketing (January 1988). С. 78–92; William L. Cron, Ellen F. Jackofsky, and John W. Slocum, Jr. Job Performance and Attitudes of Disengagement Stage Salespeople Who Are about to Retire. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (весна 1993) с. 1–13.

· #143

Miao, C. Fred, Donald J. Lund, and Kenneth Evans. Re-Examining the Influence of Career Stages on Salesperson Motivation: A Cognitive and Affective Perspective. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 29 (лето 2009). С. 101–112; Robin T. Peterson. Beyond the Plateau. Sales & Marketing management (июль 1993). С. 78–82.

· #144

Robert House. A Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly 16, (1971). С. 321–339; Marshall Goldsmith. What Drives Our Greatest Leaders. BusinessWeek, июль 17, 2007, BusinessWeek Online; Frank E. Moriya and john C. Gockley. Grid Analysis for Sales Supervision. Industrial Marketing Management 14 (ноябрь 1985). С. 235–238.

· #145

Bill Kelley. How Much Help Does a Salesperson Need? Sales & Marketing Management (май 1989). С. 32–34.

· #146

Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr. Neil M. Ford, and Orville C. Walker, Jr., Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction in the Sales Force. Journal of Marketing Research (ноябрь 1976). С. 323–332; Pradeep K. Tyagi. Relative Importance of Key Job Dimensions and Leadership Behaviors in Motivating Salesperson Work Performance. Journal of Marketing (лето 1985). С. 76–86. См. также Susan K. DelVecchio. The Quality of Salesperson-Manager Relationship: The Effect of Latitude, Loyalty and Competence. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (зима 1998). С. 31–48; Vincent Alonzo, Perks for Jerks. Sales & Marketing Management (февраль 2001). С. 38–40; Shepherd, C David, Armen Tashcian and Rick E. Ridnour. An Investigation of the Job Burnout Syndrome in Personal Selling. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 31 (осень 2011). С. 397–410.

· #147

Julia Chang. Born to Sell? Sales & Marketing Management (июль 2003). С. 34–38. Более детальное описание данного исследования в области работы торгового персонала см. William I. Cron, Greg W. Marshall, Jagdip Singh, Rosann L. Spiro, and Harish Sujan. Salesperson Selection, Training, and Development: Trends, Implications, and Research Opportunities. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 25 (весна 2005). С. 123–136; Thomas E. DeCarlo, Sanjeev Agarwal, and Shyman B. Vyas. Performance Expectations of Salespeople: The Role of Past Performance and Casual Attributions in Independent and Interdependent Cultures. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 27 (весна 2007). С. 133–147; Ronald Jelinek and Michael Ahearne. The Enemy Within: Examining Salesperson Deviance and Its Determinants. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 26 (осень 2006). С. 327–344; Blair Kidwell, Richard G. McFarland, and Ramon A. Avila. Perceiving Emotion in the Buyer-Seller Interchange: The Moderated Impact on Performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 27 (весна 2007). С. 119–132.

· #148

Arthur Bragg. Are Good Salespeople Born or Made? Sales & Marketing Management (сентябрь 1988). С. 74.

· #149

Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr., Neil M. Ford, Steven W. Hartley, and Orville C. Walker, Jr. The Determinants of Salesperson Performance: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Marketing Research (май 1985). С. 103–118. См. также Ford, Orville C. Walker, Jr., and Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr. Selecting Successful Salespeople: A Meta-Analysis of Biographical and Psychological Selection Criteria, in Review of Marketing, ed. Michael J. Houston. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 1988. С. 90–131; Goutam Challagalla and Tasaddug A. Shervani. Dimensions and Types of Supervisory Control: Effects on Sales Performance and Satisfaction. Journal of Marketing (январь 1996). С. 47–60; Fernando Jaramillo, Jay Prakash Mulki, and Greg W. Marshall. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Organizational Commitment and Salesperson Job Performance: 25 Years of Research. Journal of Business Research 58 (июнь 2005). С. 705; Verbeke, Willem, Bart Dietz, and Ernst Verwaal, Drivers of sales performance: a contemporary meta-analysis, Have Salespeople become knowledge brokers? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 39 (2011). С. 407.

· #150

Christen P. Heide. Dartnell’s 30th Sales Force Compensation Survey. Chicago: Dartnell Corporation, 1999. С. 187. См. также HR. Chally, Applying Total Quality Management to Managing Talent» (2006). С. 5.

· #151

Jeffrey K. Sager. Recruiting and Retaining Committed Salespeople. Industrial Marketing Management (май 1991). С. 99–103.

· #152

Heide. Dartnell’s 30th Sales Force Compensation Survey, с. 143.

· #153

Тот же источник.

· #154

Stan Moss. What Sales Executives Look for in New Salespeople, Sales & Marketing Management (март 1978). С. 43–48; Thomas Rollins, How to Tell Competent Salespeople from the Other Kind. Sales & Marketing Management (сентябрь 1990). С. 116–117, 145–146; Michael K. Rich and Daniel C. Smith. Determining Relationship Skills of Prospective Salespeople. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 15 (2000). С. 242.

· #155

Ford и соавт. Selecting Successful Salespeople, pp. 90–131.

· #156

Ford и соавт. Selecting Successful Salespeople. См. также Seymour Adler, Personality Tests for Salesforce Selection: Worth a Fresh Look. Review of Business (лето 1994). С. 27–31.

· #157

Heide. Dartnell’s 30th Sales Force Compensation Survey, с. 170.

· #158

C. David Shepherd and James C. Heartfield. Discrimination Issues in the Selection of Salespeople: A Review and Managerial Suggestions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (осень 1991). С. 67–75; James M. Owens, Glenn M. Gomes, and James F. Morgan. Broadening the Definition of Unlawful Retaliation Under Title VII. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal 20 (декабрь 2008). С. 249–260.

· #159

Bobbi Linkemer. Women in Sales: What Do They Really Want? Sales & Marketing Management (январь 1989). С. 61–65; Heide. Dartnell’s 30th Sales Force Compensation Survey, с. 169.

· #160

John E. Swan, David R. Rink, G.E. Kiser, and Warren S. Martin. Industrial Buyer Image of the Saleswomen. Journal of Marketing (зима 1984). С. 110–116. См. также Myron Gable and B. J. Reed. The Current Status of Women in Professional Selling. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (май 1987). С. 33–39; Lucette B. Comer, J. A. F. Nicholls, and Leslie J. Vermillion. Diversity in the Sales Force: Problems and Challenges. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (осень 1998). С. 1–20; Nigel F. Piercy, David W. Cravens, and Nikala Lane. The New Gender Agenda in Sales Management. Business Horizons 46 (июль – август 2003). С. 39; James S. Boles, John Andy Wood, and Julie Johnson. Interrelationships of Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, and Work-Family Conflict with Different Facets of Job Satisfaction and the Moderating Effects of Gender. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 23 (весна 2003). С. 99.

· #161

Lucette B. Comer and Marvin A. Jolson. Perceptions of Gender Stereotypic Behavior: An Exploratory Study of Women in Selling. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (зима 1991). С. 43–59. См. также Judy A. Siguaw and Earl D. Honeycutt, Jr. An Examination of Gender Differences in Selling Behaviors and Job Attitudes. Industrial Marketing Management 24 (1995). С. 45–52; Arun Sharma, Michael Levy, and Heiner Evanschitzky. The Variance in Sales Performance Explained by the Knowledge Structures of Salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 27 (весна 2007). С. 169.

· #162

Franklin Evans. Selling as a Dyadic Relationship – A New Approach. American Behavioral Scientist (май 1963). С. 76–79; Sean Dwyer, Orlando Richard, and C. David Shepherd. An Exploratory Study of Gender and Age Matching in the Salesperson-Prospective Customer Dyad: Testing Similarity-Performance Predictions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 18 (осень 1998). С. 55–69.

· #163

Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr., Robert H. Collins, and William A. Strang. Should Retail Salespersons Be Similar to Their Customers? Journal of Retailing (осень 1975). С. 29–42. См. также Barton A. Weitz. Effectiveness in Sales Interactions: A Contingency Framework. Journal of Marketing (зима 1981). С. 85–103.

· #164

Rene Y. Darmon. Where Do the Best Sales Force Profit Producers Come From? Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 3 (лето 1993). С. 17–29; Heide. Dartnell’s 30th Sales Force Compensation Survey; Judy Rose. English Isn’t Enough in Real Estate Sales: Agents Need Foreign Language Skills, Washington Post (апрель, 21, 2001). С. H22.

· #165

Andrew J. Vinchur, Jeffrey S. Schippmann, Fred S. Switzer III, and Philip L. Roth. A Meta-Analytic Review of Predictors of Job Performance for Salespeople. Journal of Applied Psychology 83 (август 1998). С. 586; Adler. Personality Tests for Salesforce Selection; Cengiz Yilmaz and Shelby D. Hunt, Salesperson Cooperation: The Influence of Relational, Task, Organizational, and Personal Factors. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 29, № 4 (2001). С. 335–357.

· #166

В то время, как другое исследование занимается изучением способностей, необходимых для работы, данное исследование направлено на изучение миссионерской продажи. См. Dan C. Weilbaker. The Identification of Selling Abilities Needed for Missionary Type Sales. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (лето 1990). С. 45–58.

· #167

Derek A. Newton. Get the Most out of Your Salesforce. Harvard Business Review (сентябрь – октябрь 1969). С. 130–143. См. также Weilbaker. The Identification of Selling Abilities.

· #168

Thomas Rollins. How to Tell Competent Salespeople from the Other Kind. Sales & Marketing Management (сентябрь 1990), стр. 116–118, 145–146; Gigi Dryer, Building a Successful Team. Custom Retailer 7 (июль 2008), С. 45.

· #169

Yang, Byunghwa, Youngchan Kim, Richard G. McFarland. Individual Differences and Sales Performance: A Distal-Proximal Mediation of Model of Self Efficacy, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 31 (осень 2011), стр. 371–382.; Thomas Rollins. How to Tell Competent Salespeople from the Other Kind. Sales & Marketing Management (сентябрь 1990), стр. 116–118, 145–146; см. также Timothy J. Trow. The Secret of a Good Hire: Profiling. Sales & Marketing Management (май 1990), С. 44–55.

· #170

Детальное описание решающих аспектов работы см. Phil Faris. No More Winging It. Sales & Marketing Management (август 1986), стр. 88–91; Claudia M. Van Der Heijde and Beatrice I.J. M. Van Der Heijden. A Competence-Based and Multidimensional Operationalization and Measurement of Employability. Human Resource Management 45 (осень 2006). С. 449.

· #171

Rene Y. Darmon and S. J. Shapiro. Sales Recruiting – A Major Area of Underinvestment. Industrial Marketing Management 9 (1980). С. 47–51; Julia Lawlor, Highly Classified. Sales & Marketing Management (март 1995). С. 75–85; Barry Farber. Start at the Beginning. Sales & Marketing Management (март 1996). С. 24–25; Carole Ann King. Frustration Mounts as Recruiting Gets Harder. National Underwriter (март 19, 2001). С. 6–7; Tali Arbel. Saying Goodbye to the Want Ad. Sales & Marketing Management 158 (октябрь 2006). С. 46.

· #172

George J. Avlonitis, Kevin A. Boyle, and A. G. Kouremenos. Matching Salesmen to the Selling Job. Industrial Marketing Management 15 (1986). С. 45–54. См. также Lawlor, Highly Classified, с. 84; Lin Grensing-Pophal. Internal Selections. HR Magazine 51 (декабрь 2006). С. 75–78.

· #173

Marianne Matthews. If Your Ads Aren’t Pulling Top Sales Talent… Sales & Marketing Management (февраль 1990). С. 73–79; Daniel C. Feldman, William O. Bearden, and David M. Hardesty. Varying the Content of Job Advertisements: The Effects of Message Specificity. Journal of Advertising 35 (весна 2006). С. 123–121.

· #174

Daniel C. Feldman, William O. Bearden, and David M. Hardesty. Varying the Content of Job Advertisements: The Effects of Message Specificity, Journal of Advertising 35 (весна 2006). С. 123–121.

· #175

Arthur Bragg. Shell-Shocked on the Battlefield of Selling. Sales & Marketing Management (июль 1990). С. 52–58; Postcards from the Class of 95. Sales & Marketing Management (июнь 1995). С. 73–77; Audrey Bottjen. The Benefits of College Recruiting. Sales & Marketing Management (апрель 2001). С. 20. Более детальную информацию об университетских программах подготовки торгового персонала см. Top University Sales Education Programs. SellingPower.com., июнь 2007.

· #176

Детальное описание данных и других реже используемых инструментов см. E. James Randall and Cindy H. Randall. Review of Salesperson Selection Techniques and Criteria: A Managerial Approach. International Journal of Research in Marketing 7 (1990). С. 81–95; Joseph G. Rosse, Mary D. Stecher, Janice L. Miller, and Robert A. Levin. The Impact of Response Distortion on Preemployment Personality Testing and Hiring Decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology 83 (август 1998). С. 364. Подробное описание процессов подбора, обучения и развития см. William L. Cron, Greg W. Marshall, Jagdip Singh, Rosann L. Spiro, and Harish Sujan. Salesperson Selection, Training, and Development: Trends, Implications, and Research Opportunities. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 25 (весна 2005). С. 123–136; Anonymous. Think «Slow and Steady» for Snaring Top Hires. Sales & Management 160 (июль – август 2008). С. 6.

· #177

John E. Hunter and R. F. Hunter. Validity and Utility of Alternative Predictors of Job Performance. Psychological Bulletin, 96 (1984). С. 72–98. Детальное описание различных способов отбора для оценки торгового персонала см. Neil M. Ford, Orville C. Walker, Jr., and Gilbert A Churchill, Jr. Selecting Successful Salespeople: A Meta-Analysis of Biographical and Psychological Selection Criteria, in Review of Marketing ed. Michael J. Houston. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 1988. С. 90–131; Jose M. Cortina, Nancy B. Goldstein, Stephanie C. Payne, H. Kristi Davison and Stephen W. Gilliland. The Incremental Validity of Interview Scores Over and Above Cognitive Ability and Conscientiousness Scores. Personnel Psychology 53 (лето 2000). С. 325–351.

· #178

Myron Gable, Charles Hollon, and Frank Dangello. Increasing the Utility of the Application Blank: Relationship between Job Application Information and Subsequent Performance and Turnover of Salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (лето 1992). С. 39–55; Alan M. Saks, Joanne Leck, and David M. Sanders. Effects of Application Blanks and Employment Equity on Applicant Reactions and Job Pursuit Intentions. Journal of Organizational Behavior 16 (September 1995). С. 415–430; J. Craig Wallace and Stephen J. Vodanovich. Personnel Application Blanks: Persistence and Knowledge of Legally Inadvisable Application Blank Items. Public Personnel Management 33 (осень 2004). С. 331–349.

· #179

John H. Rose. How to Recruit, Interview, and Select Prospective Sales Representatives (Orlando, FL: National Society of Sales Training Executives 1981); Lawlor, Highly Classified; Patrick M. Wright, Philip A. Lichtenfels, and Elliot D. Pursell. The Structured Interview: Additional Studies and a Meta-Analysis. Journal of Occupational Psychology 62 (сентябрь 1989). С. 191–199.

· #180

C. David Shepherd and James C. Heartfield. Discrimination Issues in the Selection of Salespeople: A Review and Managerial Suggestions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (осень 1991). С. 71. См. также Allison Lucas, Race Matters. Sales & Marketing Management (сентябрь 1996). С. 50–62.

· #181

W. Porter Swift. Use of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule in the Selection of Salesmen. Personnel Journal 39 (февраль 1961). С. 378; Seymour Adler. Personality Tests for Salesforce Selection: Worth a Fresh Look. Review of Business (лето 1994). С. 27–31.

· #182

Richard Nelson. Maybe It’s Time to Take Another Look at Tests as a Selection Tool. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (август 1987). С. 33–38; Adler, Personality Tests for Salesforce Selection, с. 27–31; J. Denrell. Selection Bias and the Perils of Benchmarking. Harvard Business Review (апрель 2005). С. 114–119.

· #183

www.eeoc.gov (февраль,2005).

· #184

Более детальную информацию о процедуре проверки тестов на профессиональную пригодность см. на сайте Комиссии по вопросу равных возможностей занятости www.eeoc.gov.

· #185

Frank Cespedes. Organizing and Implementing the Marketing Effort: Text and Cases. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991. С. 87–88; Ashraf M. Attia, Earl D. Honeycutt, Jr., and Mark P. Leach. A Three-Stage Model for Assessing and Improving Sales Force Training and Development. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 25 (лето 2005). С. 253–268; Holly Dolezalek. Making the Buy So They Can Sell. Training 43 (август 2006). С. 34–37; Lassk, Felicia G., Thomas N. Ingram, Florian Kraus, and Rita D. Mascio. The Future of Sales Training: Challenges and Related Research Questions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 32, (осень 2012). С. 141–154.

· #186

Ежегодный отчет Lucent Technologies, 2006. www.lucent.com. Более детальная информация о самостоятельном обучении и его влиянии на результат см. Andrew B. Artis and Eric G. Harris. Self-Directed Learning and Sales Force Performance: An Integrated Framework. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 27 (зима 2007). С. 9–24; Mark P. Leach, Annie H. Liu, and Wesley J. Johnston. The Role of Self-Regulation Training in Developing the Motivation Management Capabilities of Salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 25 (лето 2005). С. 269–281; Brad Huisken. How Do I Set Up a Productivity Improvement Program? Jewelers Circular Keystone (JCK) 178 (октябрь 2007). С. 140.

· #187

Mark McMaster. A Tough Sell: Training the Salesperson. Sales & Marketing Management (январь 2001). С. 42.

· #188

Garry O’Grady. Every Rep a Star. Pharmaceutical Executive (май 2003). С. 76–80.

· #189

Top Training Priorities? Training (February 2004), pp. 26–32; V. Kumar, Rajkumar Venkatesan, and Werner Reinartz. Performance Implications of Adopting a Customer-Focused Sales Campaign. Journal of Marketing 72 (сентябрь 2008). С. 50.

· #190

Valentine, Sean. Ethics Training, Ethical Context, and Sales and Marketing Professionals’ Satisfaction with Supervisors and Coworkers. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 29 (лето 2009). С. 227–242; Thomas W. Leigh. Cognitive Selling Scripts and Sales Training. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 7 (August 1987). С. 39–48; James F. Evered. Measuring Sales Training Effectiveness. Sales & Marketing Management (февраль 1988). С. 9–12, 16–18. См. также Alan J. Dubinsky. Sales Training and Education: Some Assumptions about the Effectiveness of Sales Training. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (лето 1996). С. 67–76.

· #191

Sarin Shikhar, Trina Sego, Ajay K. Kohli, and Goutam Challagalla. Characteristics That Enhance Training Electiveness in Implementing Technological Change in Sales Strategy: A Field Based Exploratory Study. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 30 (весна 2010). С. 143–156; The following discussion is based to a large extent on Top Training Priorities? Training (февраль 2004). С. 26–32.

· #192

Тот же источник, с. 38; Christen P. Heide. Dartnell’s 30th Sales Force Compensation Survery. Chicago: Dartnell Corp., 1999. С. 142.

· #193

Jill Konrath. Sales Strategies: Why New Products Fail. Sales & Marketing Management 144 (ноябрь 1992). С. 48; Heide, Dartnell’s, с. 144.

· #194

Kathleen McLaughlin. Training’s Top 50 Edward Jones. Training (март 2001). С. 20.

· #195

H. Robert Dodge. Field Sales Management. Dallas: Business Publications, Inc., 1973. С. 226.

· #196

Erika Rasmusson. Training Goes Virtual, Sales & Marketing Management (September 2000). С. 48: John Boe, Time Is Money. The American Salesman 54 (январь 2009). С. 3–5.

· #197

Greg Burns. Life Insurance: Bogus Bait to Make You Switch, BusinessWeek (ноябрь 27 1995). С. 136.

· #198

Minda Zetlin. Kicking the Discount Habit: Teach Your Salespeople to Stop Leaving Money on the Table. Sales & Marketing Management (май 1994). С. 102–106.

· #199

Edward Roberts. Training Trade Show Salespeople How Caterpillar Does It. Business Marketing (июнь 1988). С. 70, 72–73; Erika Rasmusson, Smooth Booth Moves. Sales & Marketing Management 151 (июнь 1999). С. 71; www.caterpillar.com, июль, 2009.

· #200

Priscilla Donovan. Selling Right and Left. Sales & Marketing Management (июнь, 3, 1985). С. 62–63.

· #201

Willem Verbeke and Richard Bagozzi. Sales Call Anxiety: Exploring What It Means When Fear Rules the Sales Encounter, Journal of Marketing 64 (2000). С. 88–101; Michele Marchetti, Cold Feet, Sales & Marketing Management 155 (октябрь 2003). С. 17.

· #202

Ned Miller. Creating a Learning Environment: Tips for Sales Managers. The RMA Journal (июль – август 2006). С. 44–46; Heide, Dartnell’s, с. 140.

· #203

Jack Falvey. Forget the Sharks: Swim with Your Salespeople. Sales & Marketing Management (ноябрь 1990). С. 8.

· #204

Тот же источник.

· #205

Elana Harris. Keeping Customers Happy. Sales & Marketing Management (апрель 2001). С. 69; Ross Wigham, Off-Loading the Burden. Training & Coaching Today (февраль 2008). С. 7–8.

· #206

Elana Harris. Stars in the Making. Sales & Marketing Management (март 2001). С. 61.

· #207

Тот же источник, с. 60.

· #208

Kevin Dobbs. Training on the Fly, Sales & Marketing Management (ноябрь 2000). С. 92–98; Hyochang Lim, Sang-Gun Lee, and Kichan Nam, Validating E-Learning Factors Affecting Training Effectiveness. International Journal of Information Management 27 (февраль 2007). С. 22.

· #209

Там же, с. 96.

· #210

Industry Report 2011, Training, июль, 2012, www.trainingmag.com

· #211

Andy Patrizio. Streaming Media: Online Training, Cost-Cutting, and More. InformationWeek (14 августа, 2000). С. 108–111; тот же источник.

· #212

Anonymous. Get Value from Online Training. Security 45 (июль 2008). С. 78–79; там же.

· #213

Robert t. Erffmeyer, K. Randall Russ, and Joseph F. Hair, Jr. Needs Assessment and Evaluation in Sales-Training Programs. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 11 (зима 1991). С. 17–31.

· #214

Earl D. Honeycutt and Thomas H. Stevenson, Evaluating Sales Training Programs. Industrial Marketing Management (август 1989). С. 215–222. См. также Fernando Jaramillo, Francois A. Carrillat, and William B. Locander. A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Managerial Ratings and Self-Evaluations. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 25 (осень 2005). С. 315–328.

· #215

Powers, Thomas L., Thomas E. DeCarlo, Gouri Gupte. An Update on the Status of Sales Management Training. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 30 (осень 2010). С. 319–326; Beverly Geber. Does Training Make a Difference? Prove It! Training (март 1995). С. 27–34.

· #216

Rick Mendoza. There’s a Payoff? Sales & Marketing Management (июнь 1995). С. 64–71.

· #217

Там же. С. 69.

· #218

Xin Liang, Sibin Wu, and Joo Y. Jung. Recoupling Compensation-Performance Relationships: A Mediating Role of Performance. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management 9, № 4 (2009). С. 317–333.

· #219

Leslie M. Fine and Janice R. Franke. Legal Aspects of Salesperson Commission Payments: Implications for the Implementation of Commission Sales Programs. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (зима 1995). С. 53–68.

· #220

Joanna L. Y. Ho, Anne Wu, and Ling-Chu Lee. How Changes in Compensation Plans Affect Employee Performance, Recruitment, and Retention: An Empirical Study of a Car Dealership. Contemporary Accounting Research 4 (весна 2009). С. 167–199.

· #221

Arun Sharma. Customer Satisfaction-Based Incentive Systems: Some Managerial and Salesperson Considerations. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (весна 1997). С. 61–70.

· #222

Joel Silver. Building an Effective Sales Incentive Program, аwww.saleslobby.com, январь 2002.

· #223

Тот же источник; Audrey Bottjen. Incentives Gone Awry. Sales & Marketing Management (май 2001). С. 72.

· #224

Karen Renk. The Age-Old Question: Cash vs. Merchandise? Occupational Health and Safety (сентябрь 2002). С. 60–62.

· #225

Тот же источник.

· #226

Mark McMaster. Personalized Motivation, Sales & Marketing Management (май 2002). С. 16.

· #227

Soumaya Ben Letaifa and Jean Perrien. The Impact of E-CRM on Organizational and Individual Behavior: THe Effect of the Remuneration and Reward System, International Journal of E-Business Research 3 (апрель – июнь 2007). С. 13–21.

· #228

Arun Sharma and Dan Sard. The Impact of Customer Satisfaction-Based Incentive Systems on Salespeople’s Customer Service Response: An Empirical Study. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management (лето 1995). С. 17–29.

· #229

HR Chally Group. The Great Business Challenges of the New Millennium. Dayton, OH: HR Chally Group, 2007.

· #230

S. Scott Sands. Ineffective Quotas: The Hidden Threat to Sales Compensation Plans. Compensation and Benefits Review 32 (март – апрель 2000). С. 35–42.

· #231

Kemba J. Dunham. Back to Reality: To Lure Workers, Dot-Coms Are Having to Focus on Something Besides Options, Such as Salaries. The Wall Street journal (апрель, 12, 2001). С. R5.

· #232

Robert Dwyer and John F. Tanner, Jr. Business Marketing: Connecting Strategy, Relationships, and Learning (New York: McGraw-Hill 2002); HR Chally Group. The Great Business Challenges of the New Millenium. Dayton, OH: HR Chally Group, 2007. С. 7.

· #233

Kissan Joseph. On the Optimality of Delegating Pricing Authority to the Sales Force, Journal of Marketing (январь 2001). С. 62–70. См. также David Jobber, Graham J. Hooley, and David Shipley. Organizational Size and Salesforce Evaluation Practices. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 13 (весна 1993). С. 37–48; Birendra K. Mishra and Ashutosh Prasad. Centralized Pricing versus Delegating Pricing to the Salesforce under Information Asymmetry. Marketing Science 23 (зима 2004). С. 21–27.

· #234

Matsuo, Makoto. The Influence of Sales Management Control on Innovativeness of Sales Departments. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 29 (осень 2009). John J. Wheatley. The Allocation Controversy in Marketing Cost Analysis. University of Washington Business Review (лето 1971). С. 61–70.

· #235

Sanford R. Simon. Managing Marketing Profitability. New York: American Management Association, 1969. С. 37. Всем студентам, которые интересуются углубленным изучением анализа затрат, следует прочитать эту классическую книгу по маркетинговому анализу прибыльности. Эта работа наглядно иллюстрирует процесс составления маркетингового анализа затрат и самого анализа. См. также Robin CooDer and Robert S. Kaplan. Profit Priorities from Activity-Based Costing. Harvard Business Review 69 (май – июнь 1991). С. 130–135.

· #236

Simon. Managing Marketing Profitability, с. 37–38.

· #237

Gayle Rayburn. Accounting Fools in the Analysis and Control of Marketing Performance. Industrial Marketing Management 6 (1977). С. 175–182.

· #238

Пример см. Simon. Managing Marketing Profitability; Charles H. Sevin. Marketing Productivity Analysis.(New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965; L. Gayle Rayburn. Financial Tools for Effective Marketing Administration. New York: American Management Association, 1976; Neil Dorward. Pricing: Formula to Tame Those Wayward Costs. Accountancy 95 (ноябрь 1984). С. 101–104; Robin Cooper and Robert S. Kaplan. Measure Costs Right: Make the Right Decision. Harvard Business Review 66 (сентябрь – октябрь 1988). С. 96–103.

· #239

Daniel J. Goebel, Greg W. Marshall, and William B. Locander. Activity Based Costing: Accounting for a Market Orientation. Industrial Marketing Management 27 (ноябрь 1998). С. 497–510; David Bukovinsky. Hans Sprohge, and John Talbott, Activity-Based Costing for Sales and Administrative Costs: A Case Study. The CPA Journal 70 (апрель 2000). С. 70–72.

· #240

Информация о сегментах, которые часто используются в маркетинговом анализе затрат, см. Donald W. Jackson and Lonnie L. Ostrom. Grouping Segments for Profitability Analysis. MSU Business Topics 28 (1980). С. 39–44. См. также Robin Cooper and Robert S. Kaplan. Activity-Based Systems: Measuring the Cost of Resource Usage. Accounting Horizons 6 (сентябрь 1992). С. 1–13. Другой метод разделения дохода (покупателей) на сегменты: см. информацию об анализе в Dwyer and Tanner. Business Marketing, глава 5.

· #241

Edmund D. McCarry. Some Functions of Marketing Reconsidered, in Theory in Marketing, eds. Reavis Cox and Wroc Anderson. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1950. С. 267.

· #242

Фактически это наиболее часто используемая основа. См. Douglas M. Lambert and Jay U. Sterling. What Types of Profitability Reports Do Marketing Managers Receive? Industrial Marketing Management 16 (ноябрь 1987). С. 295–304.

· #243

Charles R. Horngren, George Foster, Srikant M. Datar, Madhav Rajan, and Chri Ittner. Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis, 13-е изд. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2008. С. 381. См. также Fred Selnes. Analyzing Marketing Profitability: Sales Are a Dangerous Cost-Driver. European Journal of Marketing 26, № 2 (1992). С. 15–26.

· #244

Пример приведен гипотетически, чтобы показать основные процессы более подробно, но в то же время он иллюстрирует некоторые общие черты таких ситуаций. Актуальные примеры, которые могут быть довольно сложными, см. Simon. ManagingMArketing Profitability; Sevin. Marketing Productivity Analysis; J.S. Schiff and M. Schiff. Strategic Management of the Sales territory. New York: New York Sales Marketing Executives, 1980; Robert A. Howell and Stephen R. Soucy. Customer Profitability – As Critical as Product Profitability. Management Accounting 72 (октябрь 1990). С. 43–47.

· #245

В дополнение к ссылкам, приведенным в предыдущем пункте, см. Dana Smith Morgan and Fred W. Morgan. Marketing Cost Controls: A Survey of Industry Practices. Industrial Marketing Management 9 (июль 1980). С. 217–221; Thomas M. Petro. Profitability: The Fifth ‘P’ of Marketing. Basic Marketing 22 (сентябрь 1990). С. 48–52.

· #246

Более детальное описание специальной подготовки см. HR Chally. Total Quality Sales Management (2006) p. 1. Пример см. также Shawn Tully. Raiding Company’s Hidden Cash. Fortune (август, 22, 1994). С. 82–87.

· #247

J.S. Schiff and Michael Schiff. New Sales Management Tool: ROAM, Harvard Business Review 45 (июль – август 1967). С. 59–66. Чтобы правильно использовать показатель доходности активов для оценки торговых территорий, см. J. S. Schiff. Evaluating the Sales Force as a Business. Industrial Marketing Management 12 (апрель 1983). С. 131–137. Проблема, связанная с показателем доходности активов для оценки определенного объекта, состоит в том, что этот показатель не учитывает возможных затрат на капитал в активах. Анализ остаточной прибыли является альтернативой оценке прибыльности сбыта. См. William L. Cron and Michael Levy. Sales Management Performance Evaluation: A Residual Income Perspective. Journal of Personal Selling Management, 7 (август 1987). С. 57–66.

· #248

Nigel F. Piercy, David W. Cravens, and Nikala Lane. Enhancing Salespeople’s Effectiveness: When Is More Sales Management Control Better Sales Management Control? Marketing Management 16 (сентябрь– октябрь 2007). С. 18–25.

· #249

David W. Cravens, Felicia G. Lassk, George S. Low, Greg W. Marshall, and William C. Moncrief. Formal and Informal Management Control Combinations in Sales Organizations: The Impact on Salespeople Consequences. Journal of a Business Research 57 (март 2004). С. 241–248.

· #250

David W. Cravens, Thomas N. Ingram, Raymond W. LaForge, and Clifford E. Young. Behavior-Based and Outcome-Based Salesforce Control Systems. Journal of Marketing 57 (октябрь 1993). С. 47–59.

· #251

Benton Cocanougher and John M. Ivancevich. «BARS» Performance Rating for Sales Force Personnel. Journal of Marketing 42 (июль 1978). С. 87–95.

· #252

Lyndon E. Dawson, Jr., Barlow Soper, and Charles E. Pettijohn. The Effects of Empathy on Salesperson Effectiveness. Psychology and Marketing 9 (июль – август 1992). С. 297–310. См. также Neil M. Ford, Orville C. Walker, Jr., Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr., and Steven W. Hartley. Selecting Successful Salespeople: A Meta-Analysis of Biographical and Psychological Selection Criteria, in Annual Review of Marketing. ed. Michael J. Houston. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 1987. С. 90–131.

· #253

Cocanougher and Ivancevich. «BARS» Performance Rating for Sales Force Personnel, с. 89.

· #254

Greg W. Marshall, John C. Mowen, and Keith J. Fabes. The Impact of Territory Difficulty and Self versus Other Ratings on Managerial Evaluations of Sales Personnel. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 12 (осень 1992). С. 35–47.

· #255

Aharon Tziner, Christine Joanis, and Kevin R. Murphy. A Comparison of Three Methods of Performance Appraisal with Regard to Goal Properties, Goal Perception, and Ratee Satisfaction. Group and Organization Management 25 (июнь 2000). С. 175–190.

· #256

Cocanougher and Ivancevich, «BARS» Performance Rating for Sales Force Personnel, с. 90–99.

· #257

Mary Jo Bitner, Bernard H. Booms, and Mary Stanfield Tetreault. The Service Encounter: Diagnosing Favorable and Unfavorable Incidents. Journal of Marketing 54 (январь 1990). С. 71–84.

· #258

Roger J. Placky. Appraisal Scales that Measure Performance Outcomes and Job Results. Personnel 60 (май-июнь 1983). С. 57–65.

· #259

Nihal Mamatoglu Effects on Organizational Context (Culture and Climate) from Implementing a 360-Degree Feedback System: The Case of Arcelik. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 17 (декабрь 2008). С. 426–449.

· #260

Give Yourself a Job Review. American Salesman (май 2001), с. 26–27.

· #261

Charles E. Pettijohn, Linda S. Pettijohn, and Michael d’Amico. Characteristics of Performance Appraisals and Their Impact on Sales Force Satisfaction. Human Resource Development Quarterly 12 (лето 2001), с. 127–139.

· #262

William Fitzgerald. Forget the Form in Performance Appraisals. HR Magazine 40 (декабрь 1995). С. 134.

· #263

Helen Rheem. Performance Management: A Progress Report. Harvard Business Review (март – апрель 1995). С. 11.

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