Книга: Distributed operating systems

6.4.6. Finding the Copies

6.4.6. Finding the Copies

Another important detail is how all the copies are found when they must be invalidated. Again, two possibilities present themselves. The first is to broadcast a message giving the page number and ask all processors holding the page to invalidate it. This approach works only if broadcast messages are totally reliable and can never be lost.

The second possibility is to have the owner or page manager maintain a list or copyset telling which processors hold which pages, as depicted in Fig. 6-29. Here page 4, for example, is owned by a process on CPU 1, as indicated by the double box around the 4. The copyset consists of 2 and 4, because copies of page 4 can be found on those machines.

Fig. 6-29. The owner of each page maintains a copyset telling which other CPUs are sharing that page. Page ownership is indicated by the double boxes.

When a page must be invalidated, the old owner, new owner, or page manager sends a message to each processor holding the page and waits for an acknowledgement. When each message has been acknowledged, the invalidation is complete.

Dash and Memnet also need to invalidate pages when a new writer suddenly appears, but they do it differently. Dash uses directories. The writing process sends a packet to the directory (the page manager in our terminology), which then finds all the copies from its bit map, sends each one an invalidation packet, and collects all the acknowledgements. Memnet fetches the needed page and invalidates all copies by broadcasting an invalidation packet on the ring. The first processor having a copy puts it in the packet and sets a header bit saying it is there. Subsequent processors just invalidate their copies. When the packet comes around the ring and arrives back at the sender, the needed data are present and all other copies are gone. In effect, Memnet implements DSM in hardware.

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