Книга: Distributed operating systems



1. A dash system has b bytes of memory divided over n clusters. Each cluster has p processors in it. The cache block size is c bytes. Give a formula for the total amount of memory devoted to directories (excluding the two state bits per directory entry).

2. Is it really essential that Dash make a distinction between the CLEAN and UNCACHED states? Would it have been possible to dispense with one of them? After all, in both cases memory has an up-to-date copy of the block.

3. In the text it is stated that many minor variations of the cache ownership protocol of Fig. 6-6 are possible. Describe one such variation and give one advantage yours has over the one in the text. 

4. Why is the concept of "home memory" needed in Memnet but not in Dash?

5. In a NUMA multiprocessor, local memory references take 100 nsec and remote references take 800 nsec. A certain program makes a total of N memory references during its execution, of which 1 percent are to a page P. That page is initially remote, and it takes C nsec to copy it locally. Under what conditions should the page be copied locally in the absence of significant use by other processors?

6. During the discussion of memory consistency models, we often referred to the contract between the software and memory. Why is such a contract needed?

7. A multiprocessor has a single bus. Is it possible to implement strictly consistent memory?

8. In Fig. 6-13(a) an example of a sequentially consistent memory is shown. Make a minimal change to P2 that violates sequential consistency.

9. In Fig. 6-14, is 001110 a legal output for a sequentially consistent memory? Explain your answer. 

10. At the end of Sec. 6-2.2, we discussed a formal model that said every set of operations on a sequentially consistent memory can be modeled by a string, S, from which all the individual process sequences can be derived. For processes P1 and P2 in Fig. 6-16, give all the possible values of S.  Ignore processes P3 and P4 and do not include their memory references in 5.

11. In Fig. 6-20, a sequentially consistent memory allows six possible statement interleavings. List them all.

12. Why is W(x) 1R(х)0 R(x)1 not legal for Fig. 6-12(b)?

13. In Fig. 6-14, is 000000 a legal output for a memory that is only PRAM consistent? Explain your answer.

14. In most implementations of (eager) release consistency in DSM systems, shared variables are synchronized on a release, but not on an acquire. Why is acquire needed at all then?

15. In Fig. 6-27, suppose that the page owner is located by broadcasting. In which of the cases should the page be sent for a read?

16. In Fig. 6-28 a process may contact the owner of a page via the page manager. It may want ownership or the page itself, which are independent quantities. Do all four cases exist (excepting, of course, the case where the requester does not want the page and does not want ownership)? 

17. Suppose that two variables, A and B are both located, by accident, on the same page of a page-based DSM system. However, both of them are unshared variables. Is false sharing possible?

18. Why does IVY use an invalidation scheme for consistency instead of an update scheme?

19. Some machines have a single instruction that, in one atomic action, exchanges a register with a word in memory. Using this instruction, it is possible to implement semaphores for protecting critical regions. Will programs using this instruction work on a page-based DSM system? If so, under what circumstances will they work efficiently?

20. What happens if a Munin process modifies a shared variable outside a critical region?

21. Give an example of an in operation in Linda that does not require any searching or hashing to find a match.

22. When Linda is implemented by replicating tuples on multiple machines, a protocol is needed for deleting tuples. Give an example of a protocol that does not yield races when two processes try to delete the same tuple at the same time.

23. Consider an Orca system running on a network with hardware broadcasting. Why does the ratio of read operations to write operations affect the performance?

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