Книга: Distributed operating systems

5.2.4. Replication

5.2.4. Replication

Distributed file systems often provide file replication as a service to their clients. In other words, multiple copies of selected files are maintained, with each copy on a separate file server. The reasons for offering such a service vary, but among the major reasons are:

1. To increase reliability by having independent backups of each file. If one server goes down, or is even lost permanently, no data are lost. For many applications, this property is extremely desirable.

2. To allow file access to occur even if one file server is down. The motto here is: The show must go on. A server crash should not bring the entire system down until the server can be rebooted.

3. To split the workload over multiple servers. As the system grows in size, having all the files on one server can become a performance bottleneck. By having files replicated on two or more servers, the least heavily loaded one can be used.

The first two relate to improving reliability and availability; the third concerns performance. All are important.

A key issue relating to replication is transparency (as usual). To what extent are the users aware that some files are replicated? Do they play any role in the replication process, or is it handled entirely automatically? At one extreme, the users are fully aware of the replication process and can even control it. At the other, the system does everything behind their backs. In the latter case, we say that the system is replication transparent.

Figure 5-12 shows three ways replication can be done. The first way, shown in Fig. 5-12(a), is for the programmer to control the entire process. When a process makes a file, it does so on one specific server. Then it can make additional copies on other servers, if desired. If the directory server permits multiple copies of a file, the network addresses of all copies can then be associated with the file name, as shown at the bottom of Fig. 5-12(a), so that when the name is looked up, all copies will be found. When the file is subsequently opened, the copies can be tried sequentially in some order, until an available one is found.

Fig. 5-12. (a) Explicit file replication. (b) Lazy file replication. (c) File replication using a group.

To make the concept of explicit replication more familiar, consider how it can be done in a system based on remote mounting in UNIX. Suppose that a programmer's home directory is /machine1/usr/ast. After creating a file, for example the file, /machine1/usr/ast/xyz, the programmer, process, or library can use the cp command (or equivalent) to make copies in /machine2/usr/ast/xyz and /machine3/usr/ast/xyz. Programs can be written to accept strings like /usr/ast/xyz as arguments, and successively try to open the copies until one succeeds. While this scheme can be made to work, it is a lot of trouble. For this reason, a distributed system should do better.

In Fig. 5-12(b) we see an alternative approach, lazy replication. Here, only one copy of each file is created, on some server. Later, the server itself makes replicas on other servers automatically, without the programmer's knowledge. The system must be smart enough to be able to retrieve any of these copies if need be. When making copies in the background like this, it is important to pay attention to the possibility that the file might change before the copies can be made.

Our final method is to use group communication, as shown in Fig. 5-13(c). In this scheme, all write system calls are simultaneously transmitted to all the servers, so extra copies are made at the same time the original is made. There are two principal differences between lazy replication and using a group. First, with lazy replication, one server is addressed rather than a group. Second, lazy replication happens in the background, when the server has some free time, whereas when group communication is used, all copies are made at the same time.

Update Protocols

Above we looked at the problem of how replicated files can be created. Now let us see how existing ones can be modified. Just sending an update message to each copy in sequence is not a good idea because if the process doing the update crashes partway through, some copies will be changed and others not. As a result, some future reads may get the old value and others may get the new value, hardly a desirable situation. We will now look at two well-known algorithms that solve this problem.

The first algorithm is called primary copy replication. When it is used, one server is designated as the primary. All the others are secondaries. When a replicated file is to be updated, the change is sent to the primary server, which makes the change locally and then sends commands to the secondaries, ordering them to change, too. Reads can be done from any copy, primary or secondary.

To guard against the situation that the primary crashes before it has had a chance to instruct all the secondaries, the update should be written to stable storage prior to changing the primary copy. In this way, when a server reboots after a crash, a check can be made to see if any updates were in progress at the time of the crash. If so, they can still be carried out. Sooner or later, all the secondaries will be updated.

Although the method is straightforward, it has the disadvantage that if the primary is down, no updates can be performed. To get around this asymmetry, Gifford (1979) proposed a more robust method, known as voting. The basic idea is to require clients to request and acquire the permission of multiple servers before either reading or writing a replicated file.

As a simple example of how the algorithm works, suppose that a file is replicated on N servers. We could make a rule stating that to update a file, a client must first contact at least half the servers plus 1 (a majority) and get them to agree to do the update. Once they have agreed, the file is changed and a new version number is associated with the new file. The version number is used to identify the version of the file and is the same for all the newly updated files.

To read a replicated file, a client must also contact at least half the servers plus 1 and ask them to send the version numbers associated with the file. If all the version numbers agree, this must be the most recent version because an attempt to update only the remaining servers would fail because there are not enough of them.

For example, if there are five servers and a client determines that three of them have version 8, it is impossible that the other two have version 9. After all, any successful update from version 8 to version 9 requires getting three servers to agree to it, not just two.

Gifford's scheme is actually somewhat more general than this. In it, to read a file of which N replicas exist, a client needs to assemble a read quorum, an arbitrary collection of any Nrservers, or more. Similarly, to modify a file, a write quorum of at least Nwservers is required. The values of Nrand Nware subject to the constraint that Nr+Nw>N. Only after the appropriate number of servers has agreed to participate can a file be read or written.

To see how this algorithm works, consider Fig. 5-13(a), which has Nr=3 and Nw=10. Imagine that the most recent write quorum consisted of the 10 servers C through L. All of these get the new version and the new version number. Any subsequent read quorum of three servers will have to contain at least one member of this set. When the client looks at the version numbers, it will know which is most recent and take that one.

Fig. 5-13. Three examples of the voting algorithm.

In Fig. 5-13(b) and (c), we see two more examples. The latter is especially interesting because it sets Nr to 1, making it possible to read a replicated file by finding any copy and using it. The price paid, however, is that write updates need to acquire all copies.

An interesting variation on voting is voting with ghosts (Van Renesse and Tanenbaum, 1988). In most applications, reads are much more common than writes, so Nris typically a small number and Nwis nearly N. This choice means that if a few servers are down, it may be impossible to obtain a write quorum.

Voting with ghosts solves this problem by creating a dummy server, with no storage, for each real server that is down. A ghost is not permitted in a read quorum (it does not have any files, after all), but it may join a write quorum, in which case it just throws away the file written to it. A write succeeds only if at least one server is real.

When a failed server is rebooted, it must obtain a read quorum to locate the most recent version, which it then copies to itself before starting normal operation. The algorithm works because it has the same property as the basic voting scheme, namely, Nrand Nware chosen so that acquiring a read quorum and a write quorum at the same time is impossible. The only difference here is that dead machines are allowed in a write quorum, subject to the condition that when they come back up they immediately obtain the current version before going into service.

Other replication algorithms are described in (Bernstein and Goodman, 1984; Brereton, 1986; Pu et al., 1986; and Purdin et al., 1987).

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