Afari, N. and Buchwald, D. (2003). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(2):221236.

Ahn, W.K. and Bailenson, J. (1996). Causal Attribution as a Search for Underlying Mechanisms: An Explanation of the Conjunction Fallacy and the Discounting Principle. Cognitive Psychology, 31(1):82123.

Ahn, W.K. and Kalish, C. W. (2000). The role of mechanism beliefs in causal reasoning. In F. C. Keil and R. A. Wilson (eds.), Explanation and cognition, pp. 199225. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Ahn, W.K., Kalish, C. W., Medin, D. L., and Gelman, S. A. (1995). The role of covariation versus mechanism information in causal attribution. Cognition, 54(3): 299352.

Alberts, B. (2011). Retraction of Lombardi et al. Science, 334(6063):16361636.

Alexander, J. (2012). Experimental philosophy: An introduction. Polity, Cambridge, UK.

Alicke, M. D., Rose, D., and Bloom, D. (2011). Causation, Norm Violation, and Culpable Control. The Journal of Philosophy, 108(12):670696.

Alter, H. J., Mikovits, J. A., Switzer, W. M., Ruscetti, F. W., Lo, S. C., Klimas, N., Komaroff, A. L., Montoya, J. G., Bateman, L., Levine, S., Peterson, D., Levin, B., Hanson, M. R., Genfi, A., Bhat, M., Zheng, H., Wang, R., Li, B., Hung, G. C., Lee, L. L., Sameroff, S., Heneine, W., Coffin, J., Hornig, M., and Lipkin, W. I. (2012). A Multicenter Blinded Analysis Indicates No Association between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and either Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus or Polytropic Murine Leukemia Virus. mBio, 3(5): e00266 00212.

Andersen, H. (2013). When to Expect Violations of Causal Faithfulness and Why It Matters. Philosophy of Science, 80(5): 672683.

Anderson, C. (2008). The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete. Retrieved from http://archive.wired.com/science/discoveries/magazine/1607/pb_theory.

Appelbaum, B. (2011). Employment Data May Be the Key to the Presidents Job. The New York Times, June: p. A1.

Aristotle (1924). Metaphysics. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Edited by W. D. Ross.

Aristotle (1936). Physics. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Edited by W. D. Ross.

Badler, J., Lef?vre, P., and Missal, M. (2010). Causality Attribution Biases Oculomotor Responses. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30(31): 1051710525.

Badler, J. B., Lef?vre, P., and Missal, M. (2012). Divergence between oculomotor and perceptual causality. Journal of Vision, 12(5):3.

Baird, S., Ferreira, F. H. G., ?zler, B., and Woolcock, M. (2013). Relative Effectiveness of Conditional and Unconditional Cash Transfers for Schooling Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 9(8).

Baker, S. G. and Kramer, B. S. (2001). Good for Women, Good for Men, Bad for People: Simpsons Paradox and the Importance of Sex-Specific Analysis in Observational Studies. Journal of Womens Health & Gender-Based Medicine, 10(9): 867872.

Bareinboim, E. and Pearl, J. (2012). Controlling selection bias in causal inference. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics.

Barnett, L. and Seth, A. K. (2014). The MVGC multivariate Granger causality toolbox: A new approach to Granger-causal inference. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 223:5068.

Beasley, N. A. (1968). The extent of individual differences in the perception of causality. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 22(5):399407.

Bechlivanidis, C. and Lagnado, D. A. (2013). Does the Why Tell Us the When? Psychological Science, 24(8):15631572.

Beecher, H. K. (1955). The Powerful Placebo. Journal of the American Medical Association, 159(17):16021606.

Begley, C. G. and Ellis, L. M. (2012). Drug development: Raise standards for preclinical cancer research. Nature, 483(7391):531533.

Bennett, C. M., Baird, A. A., Miller, M. B., and Wolford, G. L. (2011). Neural Correlates of Interspecies Perspective Taking in the Post-Mortem Atlantic Salmon: An Argument For Proper Multiple Comparisons Correction. Journal of Serendipitous and Unexpected Results, 1:15.

Bhatt, A. (2010). Evolution of Clinical Research: A History Before and Beyond James Lind. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 1(1):610.

Bickel, P. J., Hammel, E. A., and OConnell, J. W. (1975). Sex Bias in Graduate Admissions: Data from Berkeley. Science, 187(4175):398404.

Blackwell, B., Bloomfield, S. S., and Buncher, C. R. (1972). Demonstration to medical students of placebo responses and non-drug factors. The Lancet, 299(7763):12791282.

Blatchford, P. and Mortimore, P. (1994). The Issue of Class Size for Young Children in Schools: What can we learn from research? Oxford Review of Education, 20(4):411428.

Bohrnstedt, G. W. and Stecher, B. M. (eds.) (2002). What We Have Learned about Class Size Reduction in California. American Institutes for Research, Palo Alto, CA.

Bollinger, B., Leslie, P., and Sorensen, A. (2011). Calorie Posting in Chain Restaurants. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 3(1):91128.

Bond, R. M., Fariss, C. J., Jones, J. J., Kramer, A. D., Marlow, C., Settle, J. E., and Fowler, J. H. (2012). A 61-million-person experiment in social influence and political mobilization. Nature, 489(7415):295298.

Born, M. and Einstein, A. (1971). The Born Einstein Letters: Correspondence between Albert Einstein and Max and Hedwig Born from 1916 to 1955 with commentaries by Max Born. Macmillan Press, Basingstroke, UK. Translated by Irene Born.

Boyd, C. M., Darer, J., Boult, C., Fried, L. P., Boult, L., and Wu, A. W. (2005). Clinical Practice Guidelines and Quality of Care for Older Patients With Multiple Comorbid Diseases: Implications for Pay for Performance. JAMA, 294(6):716724.

Brandt, M. J., IJzerman, H., Dijksterhuis, A., Farach, F. J., Geller, J., Giner-Sorolla, R., Grange,J.A., Perugini, M., Spies, J. R., and Vant Veer, A. (2014). The Replication Recipe: What makes for a convincing replication? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 50:217224.

Broadie, S. (2009). The Ancient Greeks. In H. Beebee, C. Hitchcock, and P. Menzies (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Causation, pp. 2139. Oxford University Press, Oxford; New York.

Buchanan, M. (2007). Statistics: Conviction by numbers. Nature, 445:254255.

Buck, D. and Buehler, R. (2012). Bike Lanes and Other Determinants of Capital Bikeshare Trips. In 91st Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting.

Buehner, M. J. and May, J. (2003). Rethinking temporal contiguity and the judgement of causality: Effects of prior knowledge, experience, and reinforcement procedure. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Section A, 56(5):865890.

Buehner, M. J. and May, J. (2004). Abolishing the effect of reinforcement delay on human causal learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Section B, 57(2):179191.

Buehner, M. J. and McGregor, S. (2006). Temporal delays can facilitate causal attribution: Towards a general timeframe bias in causal induction. Thinking & Reasoning, 12(4):353378.

Campbell, M. K., Elbourne, D. R., and Altman, D. G. (2004). CONSORT statement: Extension to cluster randomised trials. BMJ, 328:702708.

Caporael, L. R. (1976). Ergotism: The Satan Loosed in Salem. Science, 192(4234): 2126.

Carels, R. A., Konrad, K., and Harper, J. (2007). Individual differences in food perceptions and calorie estimation: An examination of dieting status, weight, and gender. Appetite, 49(2):450458.

Carey, B. (2012). Fathers Age Is Linked to Risk of Autism and Schizophrenia. The New York Times, August: p. A1.

Carey, B. (2013). Sleep Therapy Seen as an Aid for Depression. The New York Times, November: p.A1.

Carpenter, C. E. (1932). Workable Rules for Determining Proximate Cause. California Law Review, 20(3):229259.

Cartwright, N. (1999). Causal Diversity and the Markov Condition. Synthese, 121(12):327.

Cartwright, N. (2001). What Is Wrong with Bayes Nets? The Monist, 84(2):242264.

Cartwright, N. (2002). Against Modularity, the Causal Markov Condition, and Any Link Between the Two: Comments on Hausman and Woodward. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 53(3):411453.

Cartwright, N. (2004). Causation: One Word, Many Things. Philosophy of Science, 71(5): 805819.

Cartwright, N. (2012). Presidential Address: Will This Policy Work for You? Predicting Effectiveness Better: How Philosophy Helps. Philosophy of Science, 79(5):973989.

Chambers, C. D., Feredoes, E., Muthukumaraswamy, S. D., and Etchells, P. J. (2014). Instead of playing the game it is time to change the rules: Registered Reports at AIMS Neuroscience and beyond. AIMS Neuroscience, 1(1):417.

Charney, E. and English, W. (2012). Candidate Genes and Political Behavior. American Political Science Review, 106(1):134.

Charniak, E. (1991). Bayesian Networks without Tears. AI magazine, 12(4):5063.

Cheng, P. W. (1997). From covariation to causation: A causal power theory. Psychological review, 104(2):367405.

Cheng, P. W. and Novick, L. R. (1990). A probabilistic contrast model of causal induction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(4):545567.

Cheng, P. W. and Novick, L. R. (1992). Covariation in natural causal induction. Psychological Review, 99(2):365382.

Cherry, W. H. and Oldford, R. W. (2003). Picturing Probability: The poverty of Venn diagrams, the richness of Eikosograms. Unpublished manuscript.

Choi, I., Dalal, R., Chu, K. P., and Park, H. (2003). Culture and Judgement of Causal Relevance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(1):4659.

Choi, I., Nisbett, R. E., and Norenzayan, A. (1999). Causal Attribution Across Cultures: Variation and Universality. Psychological Bulletin, 125(1):4763.

Chrystal, K. A. and Mizen, P. (2003). Goodharts Law: Its origins, meaning and implications for monetary policy. In P. Mizen (ed.), Central Banking, Monetary Theory and Practice: Essays in Honour of Charles Goodhart, vol.1, pp. 221243. Edward Elgar Publishing, Northampton, MA.

Chua, H. F., Boland, J. E., and Nisbett, R. E. (2005). Cultural variation in eye movements during scene perception. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(35):1262912633.

Claxton, A. J., Cramer, J., and Pierce, C. (2001). A systematic review of the associations between dose regimens and medication compliance. Clinical Therapeutics, 23(8):12961310.

Cohen, J. (2011). Chronic fatigue syndrome researcher fired amidst new controversy. Science. Retrieved from http://news.sciencemag.org/2011/10/chronic-fatigue-syndrome-researcher-fired-amidst-new-controversy.

Cohen, L. B., Rundell, L. J., Spellman, B. A., and Cashon, C. H. (1999). Infants perception of causal chains. Psychological Science, 10(5):412418.

Collins, H. and Pinch, T. (2008). Dr. Golem: How to Think about Medicine. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Conley, R. H. and Conley, J. M. (2009). Stories from the Jury Room: How Jurors Use Narrative to Process Evidence. Studies in Law, Politics, and Society, 49(2):2556.

Cook, N. R. and Ridker, P. M. (2014). Response to Comment on the Reports of Overestimation of ASCVD Risk Using the 2013 AHA/ACC Risk Equation. Circulation, 129(2):268269.

Cooke, P. (2009). Clarifications and corrections to On the attribution of probabilities to the causes of disease by Peter Cooke and Arianna Cowling (Law, Probability and Risk (2005), 4, 251256). Law, Probability & Risk, 8:6768.

Cooke, P. and Cowling, A. (2006). On the attribution of probabilities to the causes of disease. Law, Probability & Risk, 4(4):251256.

Cooper, G. F. (1999). An Overview of the Representation and Discovery of Causal Relationships Using Bayesian Networks. In C. Glymour and G. F. Cooper (eds.), Computation, Causation, and Discovery, pp. 362. AAAI Press and MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Cooper, G. F. and Herskovits, E. (1992). A Bayesian Method for the Induction of Probabilistic Networks from Data. Machine Learning, 9(4):309347.

Corrao, G., Rubbiati, L., Bagnardi, V., Zambon, A., and Poikolainen, K. (2000). Alcohol and coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis. Addiction, 95(10):15051523.

Craig, P., Dieppe, P., Macintyre, S., Michie, S., Nazareth, I., and Petticrew, M. (2008). Developing and evaluating complex interventions: The new Medical Research Council guidance. BMJ, 337:a1655.

Crofton, J. (2006). The MRC randomized trial of streptomycin and its legacy: A view from the clinical front line. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 99(10): 531534.

Cushing, J. T. (1998). Philosophical Concepts in Physics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cushman, F. (2008). Crime and punishment: Distinguishing the roles of causal and intentional analyses in moral judgment. Cognition, 108(2):353380.

Dalakas, M. C. (1995). Post-Polio Syndrome As an Evolved Clinical Entity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 753:6880.

Damisch, L., Stoberock, B., and Mussweiler, T. (2010). Keep Your Fingers Crossed! How Superstition Improves Performance. Psychological Science, 21(7): 10141020.

Danks, D. (2005). The Supposed Competition Between Theories of Human Causal Inference. Philosophical Psychology, 18(2):259272.

Dash, D., Voortman, M., and De Jongh, M. (2013). Sequences of mechanisms for causal reasoning in artificial intelligence. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence.

David, L., Seinfeld, J., and Goldman, M. (writers) and Cherones, T. (director). (1991). The stranded [Television series episode]. In David, L. (producer), Seinfeld. CBS, Los Angeles.

DeMaio, P. (2009). Bike-sharing: History, Impacts, Models of Provision, and Future. Journal of Public Transportation, 12(4):4156.

Devine, D. J., Clayton, L. D., Dunford, B. B., Seying, R., and Pryce, J. (2001). Jury decision making: 45 years of empirical research on deliberating groups. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 7(3):622727.

Diamond, S. S. and Rose, M. R. (2005). Real Juries. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 1:255284.

Diamond, S. S., Vidmar, N., Rose, M., Ellis, L., and Murphy, B. (2003). Juror Discussions during Civil Trials: Studying an Arizona Innovation. Arizona Law Review, 45:183.

Dickey, D. A. and Fuller, W. A. (1981). Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root. Econometrica, 49(4):10571072.

Downs, J. S., Wisdom, J., Wansink, B., and Loewenstein, G. (2013). Supplementing Menu Labeling With Calorie Recommendations to Test for Facilitation Effects. American Journal of Public Health, 103(9):16041609.

Drummond, C. (2009). Replicability is not Reproducibility: Nor is it Good Science. In Proceedings of the Evaluation Methods for Machine Learning Workshop at the 26th ICML.

DuHigg, C. (2012). Psst, You in Aisle 5. The New York Times Magazine, February: p. MM30.

Dumanovsky, T., Huang, C. Y., Nonas, C. A., Matte, T. D., Bassett, M. T., and Silver, L. D. (2011). Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: Cross sectional customer surveys. BMJ, 343:d4464.

Dwyer, M. (2013). Coffee drinking tied to lower risk of suicide. Harvard Gazette. Retrieved from http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2013/07/drinking-coffee-may-reduce-risk-of-suicide-by-50/.

Eells, E. (1991). Probabilistic Causality. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Efron, B. (2010). Large-Scale Inference: Empirical Bayes Methods for Estimation, Testing, and Prediction. Institute of Mathematical Statistics Monographs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Eichler, M. (2010). Graphical Gaussian Modelling of Multivariate Time Series with Latent Variables. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics.

Einstein, A., Podolsky, B., and Rosen, N. (1935). Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete? Physical Review, 47(10): 777780.

Elbel, B., Kersh, R., Brescoll, V. L., and Dixon, L. B. (2009). Calorie Labeling And Food Choices: A First Look At The Effects On Low-Income People In New York City. Health Affairs, 28(6):w1110w1121.

Ellison, B., Lusk, J. L., and Davis, D. (2014). The Effect of Calorie Labels on Caloric Intake and Restaurant Revenue: Evidence from Two Full-Service Restaurants. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 46(2):173191.

Entner, D. and Hoyer, P. O. (2010). On Causal Discovery from Time Series Data using FCI. In Proceedings of the 5th European Workshop on Probabilistic Graphical Models.

Erickson, J. D. (1978). Down syndrome, paternal age, maternal age and birth order. Annals of Human Genetics, 41(3):289298.

Erlwein, O., Kaye, S., McClure, M. O., Weber, J., Wills, G., Collier, D., Wessely, S., and Cleare, A. (2010). Failure to Detect the Novel Retrovirus XMRV in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. PloS ONE, 5(1):e8519.

Faro, D., McGill, A. L., and Hastie, R. (2013). The influence of perceived causa-tion on judgments of time: An integrative review and implications for decision-making. Frontiers in Psychology, 4:217.

Fewtrell, M. S., Kennedy, K., Singhal, A., Martin, R. M., Ness, A., Hadders-Algra, M., Koletzko, B., and Lucas, A. (2008). How much loss to follow-up is acceptable in long-term randomised trials and prospective studies? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 93(6):458461.

Fischer, D. A. (1992). Causation in Fact in Omission Cases. Utah Law Review, pp. 13351384.

Fischer, D. A. (2006). Insufficient Causes. Kentucky Law Journal, 94:27737.

Fisher, R. A. (1925). Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.

Fitelson, B. and Hitchcock, C. (2011). Probabilistic measures of causal strength. In P. M. Illari, F.Russo, and J. Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences, pp. 600627. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Fleming, P. J., Blair, P., Bacon, P., and Berry, J. (eds.) (2000). Sudden unexpected deaths in infancy: The CESDI SUDI studies 19931996. The Stationery Office, London.

Fowler, J. H. and Dawes, C. T. (2008). Two Genes Predict Voter Turnout. The Journal of Politics, 70(3):579594.

Frank, S. A., Wilson, R., Holloway, R. G., Zimmerman, C., Peterson, D. R., Kieburtz, K., and Kim,S.Y.H. (2008). Ethics of sham surgery: Perspective of patients. Movement Disorders, 23(1):6368.

Freedman, D. and Humphreys, P. (1999). Are There Algorithms That Discover Causal Structure? Synthese, 121(12):2954.

Fugelsang, J. A. and Thompson, V. A. (2003). A dual-process model of belief and evidence interactions in causal reasoning. Memory & Cognition, 31(5):800815.

Fumerton, R. and Kress, K. (2001). Causation and the Law: Preemption, Lawful Sufficiency, and Causal Sufficiency. Law and Contemporary Problems, 64(4):83105.

Gabriel, A. and Mercado, C. P. (2011). Data retention after a patient withdraws consent in clinical trials. Open Access Journal of Clinical Trials, 3:1519.

Gemelli, A. and Cappellini, A. (1958). The influence of the subjects attitude in perception. Acta Psychologica, 14:1223.

Ginsberg, J., Mohebbi, M. H., Patel, R. S., Brammer, L., Smolinski, M. S., and Brilliant, L. (2009). Detecting influenza epidemics using search engine query data. Nature, 457:10121014.

Glasgow, R. E., Lichtenstein, E., and Marcus, A. C. (2003). Why Dont We See More Translation of Health Promotion Research to Practice? Rethinking the Efficacy-to-Effectiveness Transition. American Journal of Public Health, 93(8): 12611267.

Glennan, S. (1996). Mechanisms and the Nature of Causation. Erkenntnis, 44(1): 4971.

Glennan, S. (2002). Rethinking Mechanistic Explanation. Philosophy of Science, 69(3):S342S353.

Godfrey-Smith, P. (2010). Causal Pluralism. In H. Beebee, C. R. Hitchcock, and P. Menzies (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Causation, pp. 326337. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Goldman, D. P., Joyce, G. F., and Zheng, Y. (2007). Prescription Drug Cost Sharing: Associations With Medication and Medical Utilization and Spending and Health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(1):6169.

Good, I. J. (1961). A Causal Calculus (I). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 11(44):305318.

Gopnik, A., Sobel, D. M., Schulz, L. E., and Glymour, C. (2001). Causal Learning Mechanisms in Very Young Children: Two-, Three-, and Four-Year-Olds Infer Causal Relations From Patterns of Variation and Covariation. Developmental Psychology, 37(5):620629.

Gopnik, A., Glymour, C., Sobel, D. M., Schulz, L. E., Kushnir, T., and Danks, D. (2004). A Theory of Causal Learning in Children: Causal Maps and Bayes Nets. Psychological Review, 111(1):332.

Granger, C. W. J. (1980). Testing for Causality: A Personal Viewpoint. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 2:329352.

Green, J. (2012). The Science Behind Those Obama Campaign E-Mails. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-11-29/the-science-behind-those-obama-campaign-e-mails.

Greville, W. J. and Buehner, M. J. (2010). Temporal Predictability Facilitates Causal Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139(4):756771.

Griffiths, T. L., Sobel, D. M., Tenenbaum, J. B., and Gopnik, A. (2011). Bayes and Blickets: Effects of Knowledge on Causal Induction in Children and Adults. Cognitive Science, 35(8):14071455.

Griffiths, T. L. and Tenenbaum, J. B. (2005). Structure and strength in causal induction. Cognitive Psychology, 51(4):334384.

Grodstein, F., Stampfer, M. J., Colditz, G. A., Willett, W. C., Manson, J. E., Joffe, M., Rosner, B., Fuchs,C., Hankinson, S. E., Hunter, D. J., Hennekens, C. H., and Speizer, F. E. (1997). Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Mortality. The New England Journal of Medicine, 336(25):17691775.

Groves, R. M., Fowler Jr., F. J., Couper, M. P., Lepkowski, J. M., Singer, E., and Tourangeau, R. (2009). Survey Methodology, 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ 2nd edition.

Gr?nbaum, A. (1981). The placebo concept. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 19(2):157167.

Grzegorczyk, M. and Husmeier, D. (2009). Non-stationary continuous dynamic Bayesian networks. In Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Neural Infor-mation Processing Systems.

Guyatt, G. H., Oxman, A. D., Vist, G. E., Kunz, R., Falck-Ytter, Y., Alonso-Coello, P., and Sch?nemann, H. J. (2008). GRADE: An emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ, 336(7650):924926.

Gweon, H. and Schulz, L. (2011). 16-Month-Olds Rationally Infer Causes of Failed Actions. Science, 332(6037):1524.

Hajjar, E. R., Cafiero, A. C., and Hanlon, J. T. (2007). Polypharmacy in elderly patients. The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, 5(4):345351.

Halpern, J. Y. and Hitchcock, C. R. (2010). Actual Causation and the Art of Modeling. In R. Dechter, H. Geffner, and J. Y. Halpern (eds.), Heuristics, Probability and Causality: A Tribute to Judea Pearl, pp. 383406. College Publications, London.

Hanushek, E. A. (2011). The economic value of higher teacher quality. Economics of Education Review, 30(3):466479.

Hart, H. L. A. and Honor?, T. (1985). Causation in the Law. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Haskins, R. and Sawhill, I. V. (2009). Creating an Opportunity Society. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Hastie, R. and Pennington, N. (1996). The O. J. Simpson Stories: Behavioral Scientists Reflections on The People of the State of California v. Orenthal James Simpson. University of Colorado Law Review, 67:957976.

Haushofer, J. and Shapiro, J. (2013). Household response to income changes: Evidence from an unconditional cash transfer program in Kenya. Technical report.

Hausman, D. M. (2005). Causal Relata: Tokens, Types, or Variables? Erkenntnis, 63(1):3354.

Heeger, D. J. and Ress, D. (2002). What does fMRI tell us about neuronal activity? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3(2):142151.

Heider, F. and Simmel, M. (1944). An Experimental Study of Apparent Behavior. The American Journal of Psychology, 57(2):243259.

Henning, A. S. (1948). Dewey defeats Truman. Chicago Tribune, November: p. 1.

Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., and Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(23):6183.

Heres, S., Davis, J., Maino, K., Jetzinger, E., Kissling, W., and Leucht, S. (2006). Why Olanzapine Beats Risperidone, Risperidone Beats Quetiapine, and Quetia-pine Beats Olanzapine: An Exploratory Analysis of Head-to-Head Comparison Studies of Second-Generation Antipsychotics. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(2):185194.

Hernan, M. A., Clayton, D., and Keiding, N. (2011). The Simpsons paradox unraveled. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40(3):780785.

Herndon, T., Ash, M., and Pollin, R. (2014). Does high public debt consistently stifle economic growth? A critique of Reinhart and Rogoff. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 38(2):257279.

Hill, A. B. (1965). The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 58(5):295300.

Hitchcock, C. and Knobe, J. (2009). Cause and norm. Journal of Philosophy, 106(11):587612.

Hitchcock, C. R. (1995). The Mishap at Reichenbach Fall: Singular vs. General Causation. Philosophical Studies, 78(3):257291.

Ho, Y. C. and Pepyne, D. L. (2002). Simple Explanation of the No-Free-Lunch Theorem and Its Implications. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 115(3):549570.

H?fer, T., Przyrembel, H., and Verleger, S. (2004). New evidence for the Theory of the Stork. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 18(1):8892.

H?fler, M. (2005). The Bradford Hill considerations on causality: A counterfactual perspective. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology, 2:11.

Holgate, S. T., Komaroff, A. L., Mangan, D., and Wessely, S. (2011). Chronic fatigue syndrome: Understanding a complex illness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12(9):539544.

Holson, L. M. (2009). Putting a Bolder Face on Google. The New York Times, February: p. B1.

Holyoak, K. J. and Cheng, P. W. (2011). Causal Learning and Inference as a Rational Process: The New Synthesis. Annual Review of Psychology, 62:135163.

Howick, J. (2011). Placebo Controls: Problematic and Misleading Baseline Measures of Effectiveness, pp. 8095. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, West Sussex, UK.

Howick, J., Chalmers, I., Glasziou, P., Greenhalgh, T., Heneghan, C., Liberati, A., Moschetti, I., Phillips, B., and Thornton, H. (2011). Explanation of the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) Levels of Evidence (Back-ground Document).

Howick, J., Glasziou, P., and Aronson, J. K. (2009). The evolution of evidence hierarchies: What can Bradford Hills guidelines for causation contribute? The Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 102(5):186194.

Hripcsak, G., Elhadad, N., Chen, Y. H., Zhou, L., and Morrison, F. P. (2009). Using Empiric Semantic Correlation to Interpret Temporal Assertions in Clinical Texts. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 16(2):220227.

Hu?, S., Gray, E. R., Gall, A., Katzourakis, A., Tan, C. P., Houldcroft, C. J., McLaren, S., Pillay, D., Futreal, A., and Garson, J. A. (2010). Disease-associated XMRV sequences are consistent with laboratory contamination. Retrovirology, 7(1):111.

Hulley, S., Grady, D., Bush, T., Furberg, C., Herrington, D., Riggs, B., and Vittinghoff, E. (1998). Randomized Trial of Estrogen Plus Progestin for Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease in Postmenopausal Women. JAMA, 280(7):605613.

Hume, D. (1739). A Treatise of Human Nature. London. Reprint, Prometheus Books, 1992. Citations refer to the Prometheus edition.

Hume, D. (1748). An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. London. Reprint, Dover Publications, 2004.

Illari, P. and Russo, F. (2014). Causality: Philosophical Theory Meets Scientific Practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Issenberg, S. (2012). The Victory Lab: The Secret Science of Winning Campaigns. Crown, New York.

Jepsen, C. and Rivkin, S. (2009). Class Reduction and Student Achievement: The Potential Tradeoff between Teacher Quality and Class Size. Journal of Human Resources, 44(1):223250.

Johnson, S. R. (2008). The Trouble with QSAR (or How I Learned To Stop Worrying and Embrace Fallacy). Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 48(1): 2526.

Joynson, R. B. (1971). Michottes experimental methods. British Journal of Psychology, 62(3):293302.

Kahneman, D., Lovallo, D., and Sibony, O. (2011). Before You Make That Big Decision Harvard Business Review, 89(6):5060.

Kant, I. (1902). Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Open Court Publishing, Chicago. Translated by Paul Carus.

Kant, I. (1998). Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Translated by Paul Guyer and Allen W. Wood.

Kaptchuk, T. J., Friedlander, E., Kelley, J. M., Sanchez, M. N., Kokkotou, E., Singer, J. P., Kowalczykowski, M., Miller, F. G., Kirsch, I., and Lembo, A. J. (2010). Placebos without Deception: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Irritable Bowel Syndrome. PloS ONE, 5(12):e15591.

Kearney, M. S. and Levine, P. B. (2014). Media Influences on Social Outcomes: The Impact of MTVs 16 and Pregnant on Teen Childbearing. Technical Report 19795, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Keeter, S., Dimock, M., and Christian, L. (2008). Calling Cell Phones in 08 Pre-Election Polls. The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press.

Kiszko, K. M., Martinez, O. D., Abrams, C., and Elbel, B. (2014). The Influence of Calorie Labeling on Food Orders and Consumption: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Community Health, 39(6):12481269.

Klein, R. A., Ratliff, K. A., Vianello, M., et al. (2014). Investigating Variation in Replicability. Social Psychology, 45(3):142152.

Kleinberg, S. (2012). Causality, Probability, and Time. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Kleinberg, S. and Elhadad, N. (2013). Lessons Learned in Replicating Data-Driven Experiments in Multiple Medical Systems and Patient Populations. In AMIA Annual Symposium.

Knobe, J. (2003). Intentional Action and Side Effects in Ordinary Language. Analysis, 63(279):190194.

Knobe, J. and Fraser, B. (2008). Causal Judgment and Moral Judgment: Two Experiments. In W. Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Moral Psychology, volume 2, pp. 441448. The MIT Press, Cambridge,MA.

Knobe, J. and Mendlow, G. S. (2004). The Good, the Bad and the Blameworthy: Understanding the Role of Evaluative Reasoning in Folk Psychology. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 24(2):252258.

Knobe, J. and Nichols, S. (2008). Experimental Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Koch, R. (1932). Die Aetiologie der Tuberkulose. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 11(12):490492.

Koppett, L. (1978). Carrying Statistics to Extremes. Sporting News.

Korja, M., Silventoinen, K., Laatikainen, T., Jousilahti, P., Salomaa, V., Hernes-niemi, J., and Kaprio, J. (2013). Risk Factors and Their Combined Effects on the Incidence Rate of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage A Population-Based Cohort Study. PLoS ONE, 8(9):e73760.

Kravitz, R. L. and Duan, N. (eds.) (2014). Design and Implementation of N-of-1 Trials: A Users Guide. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.

Krieger, J. and Saelens, B. E. (2013). Impact of Menu Labeling on Consumer Behavior: A 20082012 Update. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Krueger, A. B. (2003). Economic Considerations and Class Size. The Economic Journal, 113(485):F34F63.

Krueger, A. B. and Whitmore, D. M. (2001). The effect of attending a small class in the early grades on college-test taking and middle school test results: Evidence from Project STAR. The Economic Journal, 111(468):128.

van Kuppeveld, F. J., de Jong, A. S., Lanke, K. H., Verhaegh, G. W., Melchers, W. J., Swanink,C.M., Bleijenberg, G., Netea, M. G., Galama, J. M., and van Der Meer, J. W. (2010). Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the Netherlands: Retrospective analysis of samples from an established cohort. BMJ, 340:c1018.

Kushnir, T. and Gopnik, A. (2005). Young Children Infer Causal Strength from Probabilities and Interventions. Psychological Science, 16(9):678683.

Kwiatkowski, D., Phillips, P. C., Schmidt, P., and Shin, Y. (1992). Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root: How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root? Journal of Econometrics, 54(1):159178.

Lagnado, D. A. and Channon, S. (2008). Judgments of cause and blame: The effects of intentionality and foreseeability. Cognition, 108(3):754770.

Lagnado, D. A. and Harvey, N. (2008). The impact of discredited evidence. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15(6):11661173.

Lagnado, D. A. and Sloman, S. (2004). The Advantage of Timely Intervention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30(4):856876.

Lagnado, D. A. and Sloman, S. A. (2006). Time as a Guide to Cause. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32(3):451460.

Lagnado, D. A. and Speekenbrink, M. (2010). The Influence of Delays in Real-Time Causal Learning. The Open Psychology Journal, 3(2):184195.

Lagnado, D. A., Waldmann, M. R., Hagmayer, Y., and Sloman, S. A. (2007). Beyond Covariation. InA. Gopnik and L. Schulz (eds.), Causal learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation, pp.154172. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Lange, M. (2013). What Makes a Scientific Explanation Distinctively Mathematical? The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 64(3):485511.

Lazer, D. M., Kennedy, R., King, G., and Vespignani, A. (2014). The Parable of Google Flu: Traps in Big Data Analysis. Science, 343(6176):12031205.

Leibovici, L. (2001). Effects of remote, retroactive intercessory prayer on outcomes in patients with bloodstream infection: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 323(7327):14501451.

Leslie, A. M. (1982). The perception of causality in infants. Perception, 11(2):173186.

Leslie, A. M. and Keeble, S. (1987). Do six-month-old infants perceive causality? Cognition, 25(3):265288.

Lewis, D. (1973). Causation. The Journal of Philosophy, 70(17):556567. Reprinted in Lewis 1986a.

Lewis, D. (1976). The paradoxes of time travel. American Philosophical Quarterly, 13(2):145152.

Lewis, D. (1986a). Philosophical Papers, volume 2. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Lewis, D. (1986b). Postscripts to Causation. In Philosophical Papers, vol. 2, pp. 172213. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Lewis, D. (2000). Causation as Influence. The Journal of Philosophy, 97(4):182197.

Lin, P. and Gill, J. R. (2009). Delayed Homicides and the Proximate Cause. American Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology, 30(4):354357.

Lind, J. (1757). A Treatise on the Scurvy: In Three Parts, Containing an Inquiry Into the Nature, Causes, and Cure, of that Disease. A. Millar, London.

Linthwaite, S. and Fuller, G. N. (2013). Milk, chocolate and Nobel prizes. Practical Neurology, 13(1):6363.

Lo, S.-C., Pripuzova, N., Li, B., Komaroff, A. L., Hung, G.-C., Wang, R., and Alter, H. J. (2010). Detection of MLV-related virus gene sequences in blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy blood donors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(36):1587415879.

Lo, S.-C., Pripuzova, N., Li, B., Komaroff, A. L., Hung, G.-C., Wang, R., and Alter, H. J. (2012). Retraction for Lo et al., Detection of MLV-related virus gene sequences in blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy blood donors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(1):346346.

Lombardi, V. C., Ruscetti, F. W., Gupta, J. D., Pfost, M. A., Hagen, K. S., Peterson, D. L., Ruscetti,S.K., Bagni, R. K., Petrow-Sadowski, C., Gold, B., Dean, M., Silverman, R. H., and Mikovits, J. A. (2009). Detection of an Infectious Retrovirus, XMRV, in Blood Cells of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Science, 326(5952):585589.

Lopes, L. (1993). Two conceptions of the juror. In R. Hastie (ed.), Inside the Juror: The Psychology of Juror Decision Making, pp. 255262. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Machamer, P., Darden, L., and Craver, C. F. (2000). Thinking about Mechanisms. Philosophy of Science, 67(1):125.

Mackie, J. L. (1974). The Cement of the Universe. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Macklin, R. (1999). The Ethical Problems with Sham Surgery in Clinical Research. The New England Journal of Medicine, 341(13):992996.

Malle, B. F., Guglielmo, S., and Monroe, A. E. (2014). A Theory of Blame. Psychological Inquiry: An International Journal for the Advancement of Psychological Theory, 25(2):147186.

Mandel, D. R. (2003). Judgment Dissociation Theory: An Analysis of Differences in Causal, Counterfactual, and Covariational Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132(3):419434.

March, L., Irwig, L., Schwarz, J., Simpson, J., Chock, C., and Brooks, P. (1994). nof 1 trials comparing a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with paracetamol in osteoarthritis. BMJ, 309(6961):10411045.

Matossian, M. A. K. (1989). Poisons of the Past: Molds, Epidemics, and History. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Matthews, R. (2000). Storks Deliver Babies (p=0.008). Teaching Statistics, 22(2): 3638.

Maurage, P., Heeren, A., and Pesenti, M. (2013). Does Chocolate Consumption Really Boost Nobel Award Chances? The Peril of Over-Interpreting Correlations in Health Studies. The Journal of Nutrition, 143(6):931933.

McLean, K. A., Byanaku, A., Kubikonse, A., Tshowe, V., Katensi, S., and Lehman, A. G. (2014). Fishing with bed nets on Lake Tanganyika: A randomized survey. Malaria Journal, 13:395.

McLean, R. D. and Pontiff, J. (2015). Does Academic Research Destroy Stock Return Predictability? Journal of Finance, forthcoming. Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2156623.

Meadow, R. (2002). A case of murder and the BMJ. BMJ, 324(7328):4143.

Meek, C. (1995). Strong completeness and faithfulness in Bayesian networks. In Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence.

Meeks, R. R. (2004). Unintentionally Biasing the Data: Reply to Knobe. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 24(2):220223.

Messerli, F. H. (2012). Chocolate Consumption, Cognitive Function, and Nobel Laureates. The New England Journal of Medicine, 367(16):15621564.

Michotte, A. (1946). La Perception de la Causalit?. Editions de lInstitut Suprieur de Philosophie, Louvain. English translation by T. Miles & E. Miles. The Perception of Causality, Basic Books, 1963. Citations refer to the translated edition.

Mill, J. S. (1843). A System of Logic. Parker, London. Reprint, Lincoln-Rembrandt Pub., 1986.

Miller, J. G. (1984). Culture and the Development of Everyday Social Explanation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(5):961978.

Mitofsky, W. J. (1998). Review: Was 1996 a Worse Year for Polls Than 1948? The Public Opinion Quarterly, 62(2):230249.

Mitsumoto, H., Brooks, B. R., and Silani, V. (2014). Clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Why so many negative trials and how can trials be improved? The Lancet Neurology, 13(11):11271138.

Moher, D., Schulz, K. F., and Altman, D. G. (2001). The CONSORT statement: Revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomised trials. The Lancet, 357(9263):11911194.

Morris, M. W. and Peng, K. (1994). Culture and Cause: American and Chinese Attributions for Social and Physical Events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6):949971.

Mosca, L., Manson, J. E., Sutherland, S. E., Langer, R. D., Manolio, T., and Barrett-Connor, E. (1997). Cardiovascular disease in women: A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Writing Group. Circulation, 96(7):24682482.

Mostofsky, E., Rice, M. S., Levitan, E. B., and Mittleman, M. A. (2012). Habitual Coffee Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis. Circulation: Heart Failure, 5(4):401405.

Mott, N. L. (2003). The Current Debate on Juror Questions: To Ask or Not to Ask, That Is the Question. Chicago-Kent Law Review, 78:1099.

Muntner, P., Safford, M. M., Cushman, M., and Howard, G. (2014). Comment on the Reports of Over-estimation of ASCVD Risk Using the 2013 AHA/ACC Risk Equation. Circulation, 129(2):266267.

Murphy, K. (2002). Dynamic Bayesian Networks: Representation, Inference and Learning. PhD thesis, University of California, Berkley.

Nadelhoffer, T. (2004). On Praise, Side Effects, and Folk Ascriptions of Intentionality. Journal ofTheoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 24(2):196213.

Narayanan, A. and Shmatikov, V. (2008). Robust Deanonymization of Large Sparse Datasets. InProceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy.

Newburger, J. W., Takahashi, M., Gerber, M. A., Gewitz, M. H., Tani, L. Y., Burns, J. C., Shulman,S.T., Bolger, A. F., Ferrieri, P., Baltimore, R. S., Wilson, W. R., Baddour, L. M., Levison,M.E., Pallasch,T.J., Falace, D. A., and Taubert, K. A. (2004). Diagnosis, Treatment, and Long-Term Management ofKawasaki Disease. Circulation, 110(17):27472771.

Nieman, D. C. (1994). Exercise, Infection, and Immunity. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 15(S 3):S131S141.

Norenzayan, A. and Schwarz, N. (1999). Telling what they want to know: Participants tailor causal attributions to researchers interests. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29(8):10111020.

Normore, A. H. and Ilon, L. (2006). Cost-Effective School Inputs: Is Class Size Reduction the Best Educational Expenditure for Florida? Educational Policy, 20(2):429454.

Noseworthy, J. H., Ebers, G. C., Vandervoort, M. K., Farquhar, R. E., Yetisir, E., and Roberts, R. (1994). The impact of blinding on the results of a randomized, placebo-controlled multiple sclerosis clinical trial. Neurology, 44(1):1620.

Novick, L. R. and Cheng, P. W. (2004). Assessing Interactive Causal Influence. Psychological Review, 111(2):455485.

Oakes, B., Tai, A. K., Cingz, O., Henefield, M. H., Levine, S., Coffin, J. M., and Huber, B. T. (2010). Contamination of human DNA samples with mouse DNA can lead to false detection of XMRV-like sequences. Retrovirology, 7:109.

Oakes, L. M. (1994). Development of Infants Use of Continuity Cues in Their Perception of Causality. Developmental Psychology, 30(6):869879.

OMalley, K. J., Cook, K. F., Price, M. D., Wildes, K. R., Hurdle, J. F., and Ashton, C. M. (2005). Measuring Diagnoses: ICD Code Accuracy. Health Services Research, 40(5p2):16201639.

Ou, Z. Y., Pereira, S. F., Kimble, H. J., and Peng, K. C. (1992). Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables. Physics Review Letters, 68(25):36633666.

Paprotka, T., Delviks-Frankenberry, K. A., Cing?z, O., Martinez, A., Kung, H.-J., Tepper, C. G., Hu,W.-S., Fivash, M. J., Coffin, J. M., and Pathak, V. K. (2011). Recombinant origin of the retrovirus XMRV. Science, 333(6038):97101.

Patberg, W. R. and Rasker, J. J. (2004). Weather effects in rheumatoid arthritis: From controversy to consensus. A review. The Journal of Rheumatology, 31(7): 13271334.

Pearl, J. (2000). Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Pearl, J. (2014). Understanding Simpsons Paradox. The American Statistician, 68(1):813.

Pearson, K., Lee, A., and Bramley-Moore, L. (1899). Mathematical Contributions to the Theory of Evolution. VI. Genetic (Reproductive) Selection: Inheritance of Fertility in Man, and of Fecundity in Thoroughbred Racehorses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathe-matical or Physical Character, 192:257330.

Peng, K. and Knowles, E. D. (2003). Culture, Education, and the Attribution of Physical Causality. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(10):12721284.

Pennington, N. and Hastie, R. (1986). Evidence Evaluation in Complex Decision Making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(2):242258.

Pennington, N. and Hastie, R. (1988). Explanation-based decision making: Effects of memory structure on judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14(3):521533.

Pennington, N. and Hastie, R. (1992). Explaining the Evidence: Tests of the Story Model for Juror Decision Making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(2):189206.

Perales, J. C., Shanks, D. R., and Lagnado, D. (2010). Causal Representation and Behavior: The Integration of Mechanism and Covariation. Open Psychology Journal, 3(1):174183.

Perotte, A. and Hripcsak, G. (2013). Temporal Properties of Diagnosis Code Time Series in Aggregate. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, 17(2):477483.

Perwien, A. R., Johnson, S. B., Dymtrow, D., and Silverstein, J. (2000). Blood Glucose Monitoring Skills in Children with Type I Diabetes. Clinical Pediatrics, 39(6):351357.

Phillips, C. V. and Goodman, K. J. (2004). The missed lessons of Sir Austin Bradford Hill. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations, 1(1):3.

Pivovarov, R. and Elhadad, N. (2012). A hybrid knowledge-based and data-driven approach to identifying semantically similar concepts. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 45(3):471481.

Power, D. J. (2002). Ask Dan! What is the true story about data mining, beer and diapers? DSS News, 3(23).

Price, D. D., Finniss, D. G., and Benedetti, F. (2008). A Comprehensive Review of the Placebo Effect: Recent Advances and Current Thought. Annual Review of Psychology, 59:565590.

Price, H. (1997). Times Arrow and Archimedes Point: New Directions for the Physics of Time. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Prinz, F., Schlange, T., and Asadullah, K. (2011). Believe it or not: How much can we rely on published data on potential drug targets? Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 10(9):712713.

Pritchard, C. (2012). Does chocolate make you clever? BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20356613.

Pronin, E., Wegner, D. M., McCarthy, K., and Rodriguez, S. (2006). Everyday Magical Powers: The Role of Apparent Mental Causation in the Overestimation of Personal Influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(2):218231.

Psillos, S. (2010). Causal Pluralism. In R. Vanderbeeken and B. DHooghe (eds.), World-views, Science and Us: Studies of Analytical Metaphysics, pp. 131151. World Scientific Publishers, Singapore.

R v. Jordan (1956). 4Cr App R. 152.

Radelet, M. L. and Pierce, G. L. (1991). Choosing Those Who Will Die: Race and the Death Penalty in Florida. Florida Law Review, 43(1):134.

Redelmeier, D. A. and Tversky, A. (1996). On the belief that arthritis pain is related to the weather. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93(7):28952896.

Reichenbach, H. (1956). The Direction of Time. University of California Press, Berkeley. Reprint, Dover Publications, 2000.

Reiss, J. (2007). Time Series, Nonsense Correlations and the Principle of the Common Cause. In F. Russo and J. Williamson (eds.), Causality and Probability in the Sciences, pp. 179196. College Publications, London.

Reiss, J. (2014). Whats Wrong With Our Theories of Evidence? Theoria, 29(2): 283306.

Rescorla, R. A. and Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In A. H. Black and W. F. Prokasy (eds.), Classical Conditioning II: Current Theory and Research, pp. 6499. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.

Rhonheimer, J. (writer) and Fryman, P. (director). (2007). Lucky penny [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. and Thomas, C. (producers), How I met your mother. CBS, Los Angeles.

Ridker, P. M. and Cook, N. R. (2013). Statins: New American guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease. The Lancet, 382(9907):17621765.

Robins, J. M., Rotnitzky, A., and Scharfstein, D. O. (2000). Sensitivity Analysis for Selection bias and unmeasured Confounding in missing Data and Causal inference models. In M. E. Halloran and D. Berry (eds.), Statistical Models in Epidemiology: The Environment and Clinical Trials, pp. 194. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Robinson, J. W. and Hartemink, A. J. (2010). Learning Non-Stationary Dynamic Bayesian Networks. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 11(Dec):36473680.

Robinson, M. J., Erlwein, O. W., Kaye, S., Weber, J., Cingoz, O., Patel, A., Walker, M. M., Kim,W.-J.J., Uiprasertkul, M., Coffin, J. M., and McClure, M. O. (2010). Mouse DNA contamination in human tissue tested for XMRV. Retrovirology, 7:108.

de Rooij, N. K., Linn, F. H. H., van der Plas, J. A., Algra, A., and Rinkel, G. J. E. (2007). Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: A systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 78(12):13651372.

Roser, M. E., Fugelsang, J. A., Dunbar, K. N., Corballis, P. M., and Gazzaniga, M. S. (2005). Dissociating Processes Supporting Causal Perception and Causal Inference in the Brain. Neuropsychology, 19(5):591602.

Rothman, K. J. (1976). Causes. American Journal of Epidemiology, 104(6):587592. Reprinted in 141(2), 1995.

Rothman, K. J. (1990). No Adjustments Are Needed for Multiple Comparisons. Epidemiology, 1(1):4346.

Rothman, K. J. and Greenland, S. (2005). Causation and Causal Inference in Epidemiology. American Journal of Public Health, 95(S1):S144S150.

Rothwell, P. M. (2005). External validity of randomised controlled trials: To whom do the results of this trial apply? The Lancet, 365(9453):8293.

Russell, B. (1912). On the Notion of Cause. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 13(19121913):126.

Russo, F. (2006). The Rationale of Variation in Methodological and Evidential Pluralism. Philosophica, 77(1):97124.

Russo, F. and Williamson, J. (2007). Interpreting Causality in the Health Sciences. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 21(2):157170.

Salganik, M. J., Dodds, P. S., and Watts, D. J. (2006). Experimental Study of Inequality and Unpredictability in an Artificial Cultural Market. Science, 311(5762):854856.

Sandvei, M., Mathiesen, E., Vatten, L., M?ller, T., Lindekleiv, H., Ingebrigtsen, T., Nj?lstad,I., Wilsgaard, T., L?chen, M.-L., Vik, A., et al. (2011). Incidence and mortality of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in two Norwegian cohorts, 19842007. Neurology, 77(20):18331839.

Sato, E., Furuta, R. A., and Miyazawa, T. (2010). An Endogenous Murine Leukemia Viral Genome Contaminant in a Commercial RT-PCR Kit is Amplified Using Standard Primers for XMRV. Retrovirology, 7(1):110.

Saunders System Birmingham Co. v. Adams (1928). 217 Ala. 621, 117 So. 72.

Scheines, R. (1997). An Introduction to Causal Inference. In V. R. McKim and S. P. Turner (eds.), Causality in Crisis, pp. 185199. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN.

Schlottmann, A. (1999). Seeing It Happen and Knowing How It Works: How Children Understand the Relation Between Perceptual Causality and Underlying Mechanism. Developmental Psychology, 35(5):303317.

Schlottmann, A., Allen, D., Linderoth, C., and Hesketh, S. (2002). Perceptual Causality in Children. Child Development, 73(6):16561677.

Schlottmann, A., Ray, E. D., and Surian, L. (2012). Emerging perception of causality in action-and-reaction sequences from 4 to 6 months of age: Is it domain-specific? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 112(2):208230.

Schlottmann, A. and Shanks, D. R. (1992). Evidence for a distinction between judged and perceived causality. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44(2):321342.

Schoenfeld, J. D. and Ioannidis, J. P. (2013). Is everything we eat associated with cancer? Asystematic cookbook review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97(1):127134.

Schulz, K. F. and Grimes, D. A. (2002). Blinding in randomised trials: Hiding who got what. TheLancet, 359(9307):696700.

Schulz, L. E., Gopnik, A., and Glymour, C. (2007). Preschool children learn about causal structure from conditional interventions. Developmental Science, 10(3):322332.

Schwarz, G. (1978). Estimating the Dimension of a Model. The Annals of Statistics, 6(2):461464.

Scriven, M. (1966). Causes, connections and conditions in history. In W. H. Dray (ed.), Philosophical Analysis and History, pp. 238264. Harper & Row, New York.

Seok, J., Warren, H. S., Cuenca, A. G., Mindrinos, M. N., Baker, H. V., et al. (2013). Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(9):35073512.

Shalizi, C. R. and Thomas, A. C. (2011). Homophily and Contagion Are Generically Confounded in Observational Social Network Studies. Sociological Methods Research, 40(2):211239.

Shanks, D. R. (1985). Forward and backward blocking in human contingency judgement. TheQuarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37(1):121.

Shanks, D. R. (1995). The Psychology of Associative Learning. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Shanks, D. R., Pearson, S. M., and Dickinson, A. (1989). Temporal Contiguity and the Judgement of Causality by Human Subjects. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41 B(2):139159.

Sidhu, D. (2015). Moneyball Sentencing. Boston College Law Review, 56(2):671731.

Silverman, R. H., Das Gupta, J., Lombardi, V. C., Ruscetti, F. W., Pfost, M. A., Hagen, K. S., Peterson,D.L., Ruscetti, S. K., Bagni, R. K., Petrow-Sadowski, C., Gold, B., Dean, M., and Mikovits,J. (2011). Partial retraction. Science, 334(6053): 176.

Simpson, E. H. (1951). The Interpretation of Interaction in Contingency Tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology), 13(2):238241.

Skyrms, B. (1984). EPR: Lessons for Metaphysics. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 9(1):245255.

Slobogin, C. (2012). Risk Assessment. In J. Petersilia and K. R. Reitz (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections, pp. 196214. Oxford University Press, New York.

Sloman, S. A. and Lagnado, D. (2015). Causality in Thought. Annual Review of Psychology, 66:223247.

Smith, G. C. S. and Pell, J. P. (2003). Parachute use to prevent death and major trauma related to gravitational challenge: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. BMJ, 327(7429):14591461.

Snow, J. (1854). The Cholera Near Golden Square, and at Deptford. Medical Times and Gazette, 9:321322.

Snow, J. (1855). On the Mode of Communication of Cholera. John Churchill, London.

Sobel, D. M. and Kirkham, N. Z. (2006). Blickets and babies: The development of causal reasoning in toddlers and infants. Developmental Psychology, 42(6):11031115.

Sobel, D. M. and Kushnir, T. (2006). The importance of decision making in causal learning from interventions. Memory & Cognition, 34(2):411419.

Sobel, D. M., Tenenbaum, J. B., and Gopnik, A. (2004). Childrens causal inferences from indirect evidence: Backwards blocking and Bayesian reasoning in preschoolers. Cognitive Science, 28(3):303333.

Sober, E. (1987). Parsimony, Likelihood, and the Principle of the Common Cause. Philosophy of Science, 54(3):465469.

Sober, E. (2001). Venetian Sea Levels, British Bread Prices, and the Principle of the Common Cause. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 52(2):331346.

Sober, E. and Papineau, D. (1986). Causal Factors, Causal Inference, Causal Explanation. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes, 60:97136.

Sonnenberg, L., Gelsomin, E., Levy, D. E., Riis, J., Barraclough, S., and Thorndike, A. N. (2013). Atraffic light food labeling intervention increases consumer awareness of health and healthy choices at the point-of-purchase. Preventive Medicine, 57(4):253257.

Spanos, N. P. and Gottlieb, J. (1976). Ergotism and the Salem Village Witch Trials. Science, 194(4272):13901394.

Spellman, B. A. (1996). Acting as Intuitive Scientists: Contingency Judgments Are Made while Controlling for Alternative Potential Causes. Psychological Science, 7(6):337342.

Spellman, B. A. and Kincannon, A. (2001). The Relation between Counterfactual (But for) and Causal Reasoning: Experimental Findings and Implications for Jurors Decisions. Law and Contemporary Problems, 64(4):241264.

Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., and Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype Threat and Womens Math Performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35(1):428.

Spirtes, P. (2005). Graphical models, causal inference, and econometric models. Journal of Economic Methodology, 12(1):334.

Spirtes, P., Glymour, C., and Scheines, R. (2000). Causation, Prediction, and Search, 2nd edition. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. First published 1993.

Spirtes, P., Meek, C., and Richardson, T. (1995). Causal Inference in the Presence of Latent Variables and Selection Bias. In Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence.

Starr, S. B. (2014). Evidence-Based Sentencing and the Scientific Rationalization of Discrimination. Stanford Law Review, 66:803.

Steyvers, M., Tenenbaum, J. B., Wagenmakers, E. J., and Blum, B. (2003). Inferring causal networks from observations and interventions. Cognitive Science, 27(3):453489.

Stone, N. J., Robinson, J., Lichtenstein, A. H., Merz, C. N. B., Blum, C. B., Eckel, R. H., Goldberg,A.C., Gordon, D., Levy, D., Lloyd-Jones, D. M., McBride, P., Schwartz, J. S., Shero, S. T., Smith,S.C., Watson, K., and Wilson, P. W. (2013). 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 63(25):28892934.

Stoppard, T. (director). (1990). Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead [Motion picture]. Cinecom Pictures, New York.

Subbotsky, E. (2004). Magical thinking in judgments of causation: Can anomalous phenomena affect ontological causal beliefs in children and adults? British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 22(1):123152.

Sudman, S. and Blair, E. (1999). Sampling in the Twenty-First Century. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(2):269277.

Sullivan, W. (1982). New Study Backs Thesis on Witches. The New York Times, August: p. 30.

Suppes, P. (1970). A Probabilistic Theory of Causality. North-Holland, Amsterdam.

Susser, M. (1991). What is a Cause and How Do We Know One? A Grammar for Pragmatic Epidemiology. American Journal of Epidemiology, 133(7):635648.

Swartz, J. J., Braxton, D., and Viera, A. J. (2011). Calorie menu labeling on quick-service restaurant menus: An updated systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1):135.

Takao, K. and Miyakawa, T. (2014). Genomic responses in mouse models greatly mimic human inflammatory diseases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(4):11671172.

Tatonetti, N. P., Denny, J. C., Murphy, S. N., Fernald, G. H., Krishnan, G., Castro, V., Yue, P., Tsau,P.S., Kohane, I., Roden, D. M., and Altman, R. B. (2011). Detecting Drug Interactions From Adverse-Event Reports: Interaction Between Paroxetine and Pravastatin Increases Blood Glucose Levels. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 90(1):133142.

Thompson, W. C. and Schumann, E. L. (1987). Interpretation of statistical evidence in criminal trials: The prosecutors fallacy and the defense attorneys fallacy. Law and Human Behavior, 11(3):167187.

Thurman, W. N. and Fisher, M. E. (1988). Chickens, Eggs, and Causality, or Which Came First? American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 70(2):237238.

Tulppo, M. P., Hautala, A. J., M?kikallio, T. H., Laukkanen, R. T., Nissil?, S., Hughson, R. L., and Huikuri, H. V. (2003). Effects of aerobic training on heart rate dynamics in sedentary subjects. Journal of Applied Physiology, 95(1):364372.

Turner, E. H., Matthews, A. M., Linardatos, E., Tell, R. A., and Rosenthal, R. (2008). Selective Publication of Antidepressant Trials and Its Influence on Apparent Efficacy. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358(3):252260.

Tversky, A. and Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Science, 185(4157):11241131.

Uttich, K. and Lombrozo, T. (2010). Norms inform mental state ascriptions: A rational explanation for the side-effect effect. Cognition, 116(1):87100.

Vandenbroucke, J. P. (2004). When are observational studies as credible as randomised trials? The Lancet, 363(9422):17281731.

Vickers, A. (2010). What is a P-value anyway?: 34 stories to help you actually understand statistics. Addison-Wesley, Boston.

Vlahos, J. (2012). The Case of the Sleeping Slayer. Scientific American, 307(3):4853.

Waldmann, M. R. and Hagmayer, Y. (2005). Seeing Versus Doing: Two Modes of Accessing Causal Knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(2):216227.

Ward, A. C. (2009). The role of causal criteria in causal inferences: Bradford Hills aspects of association. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations, 6(1):2.

Watts, D. J. (2011). Everything Is Obvious: How Common Sense Fails Us. Crown Business, New York.

Waxman, O. B. (2012). Secret to Winning a Nobel Prize? Eat More Chocolate. TIME.com. Retrieved from http://healthland.time.com/2012/10/12/can-eating-chocolate-help-you-win-a-nobel-prize/.

Weiss, N. S. (2002). Can the Specificity of an Association be Rehabilitated as a Basis for Supporting a Causal Hypothesis? Epidemiology, 13(1):68.

White, P. (2013). Apportionment of responsibility in medical negligence. North East Law Review, 1:147151.

Wicks, P., Vaughan, T. E., Massagli, M. P., and Heywood, J. (2011). Accelerated clinical discovery using self-reported patient data collected online and a patient-matching algorithm. Nature Biotechnology, 29(5):411414.

Wiener, N. (1956). The theory of prediction. In E. Beckenbach (ed.), Modern Mathematics for the Engineer, pp. 165190. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Wolpert, D. H. and Macready, W. G. (1997). No free lunch theorems for optimization. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 1(1):6782.

Woodward, J. (2005). Making Things Happen: A Theory of Causal Explanation. Oxford University Press, New York.

Woolf, A. (2000). Witchcraft or Mycotoxin? The Salem Witch Trials. Clinical Toxicology, 38(4):457460.

Wright, R. W. (1985). Causation in Tort Law. California Law Review, 73(6):17351828.

Wright, R. W. (1987). Causation, Responsibility, Risk, Probability, Naked Statistics, and Proof: Pruning the Bramble Bush by Clarifying the Concepts. Iowa Law Review, 73:10011077.

Wright, R. W. (2007). Acts and Omissions as Positive and Negative Causes. In J. W. Neyers, E. Chamberlain, and S. G. A. Pitel (eds.), Emerging Issues in Tort Law, pp. 287307. Hart Publishing, Oxford.

Writing Group for the Womens Health Initiative Investigators (2002). Risks and Benefits of Estrogen Plus Progestin in Healthy Postmenopausal Women: Principal Results From the Womens Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA, 288(3):321333.

Young, S. S. and Karr, A. (2011). Deming, data and observational studies. Significance, 8(3):116120.

Yule, G. U. (1903). Notes on the Theory of Association of Attributes in Statistics. Biometrika, 2(2):121134.

Zou, X., Tam, K.-P., Morris, M. W., Lee, S.-L., Lau, I. Y.-M., and Chiu, C.-Y. (2009). Culture as common sense: Perceived consensus versus personal beliefs as mechanisms of cultural influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(4):579597.

: 0.086. /Cache: 0 / 0