Книга: Iptables Tutorial 1.2.2

TCP matches

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TCP matches

These matches are protocol specific and are only available when working with TCP packets and streams. To use these matches, you need to specify --protocol tcp on the command line before trying to use them. Note that the --protocol tcp match must be to the left of the protocol specific matches. These matches are loaded implicitly in a sense, just as the UDP and ICMP matches are loaded implicitly. The other matches will be looked over in the continuation of this section, after the TCP match section.

Table 10-2. TCP matches

Match --sport, --source-port
Kernel 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6
Example iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --sport 22
Explanation The --source-port match is used to match packets based on their source port. Without it, we imply all source ports. This match can either take a service name or a port number. If you specify a service name, the service name must be in the /etc/services file, since iptables uses this file in which to find. If you specify the port by its number, the rule will load slightly faster, since iptables don't have to check up the service name. However, the match might be a little bit harder to read than if you use the service name. If you are writing a rule-set consisting of a 200 rules or more, you should definitely use port numbers, since the difference is really noticeable. (On a slow box, this could make as much as 10 seconds' difference, if you have configured a large rule-set containing 1000 rules or so). You can also use the --source-port match to match any range of ports, --source-port 22:80 for example. This example would match all source ports between 22 and 80. If you omit specifying the first port, port 0 is assumed (is implicit). --source-port :80 would then match port 0 through 80. And if the last port specification is omitted, port 65535 is assumed. If you were to write --source-port 22:, you would have specified a match for all ports from port 22 through port 65535. If you invert the port range, iptables automatically reverses your inversion. If you write --source-port 80:22, it is simply interpreted as --source-port 22:80. You can also invert a match by adding a ! sign. For example, --source-port ! 22 means that you want to match all ports but port 22. The inversion could also be used together with a port range and would then look like --source-port ! 22:80, which in turn would mean that you want to match all ports but ports 22 through 80. Note that this match does not handle multiple separated ports and port ranges. For more information about those, look at the multiport match extension.
Match --dport, --destination-port
Kernel 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6
Example iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22
Explanation This match is used to match TCP packets, according to their destination port. It uses exactly the same syntax as the --source-port match. It understands port and port range specifications, as well as inversions. It also reverses high and low ports in port range specifications, as above. The match will also assume values of 0 and 65535 if the high or low port is left out in a port range specification. In other words, exactly the same as the --source-port syntax. Note that this match does not handle multiple separated ports and port ranges. For more information about those, look at the multiport match extension.
Match --tcp-flags
Kernel 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6
Example iptables -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN,FIN,ACK SYN
Explanation This match is used to match on the TCP flags in a packet. First of all, the match takes a list of flags to compare (a mask) and secondly it takes list of flags that should be set to 1, or turned on. Both lists should be comma-delimited. The match knows about the SYN, ACK, FIN, RST, URG, PSH flags, and it also recognizes the words ALL and NONE. ALL and NONE is pretty much self describing: ALL means to use all flags and NONE means to use no flags for the option. --tcp-flags ALL NONE would in other words mean to check all of the TCP flags and match if none of the flags are set. This option can also be inverted with the ! sign. For example, if we specify ! SYN,FIN,ACK SYN, we would get a match that would match packets that had the ACK and FIN bits set, but not the SYN bit. Also note that the comma delimitation should not include spaces. You can see the correct syntax in the example above.
Match --syn
Kernel 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6
Example iptables -p tcp --syn
Explanation The --syn match is more or less an old relic from the ipchains days and is still there for backward compatibility and for and to make transition one to the other easier. It is used to match packets if they have the SYN bit set and the ACK and RST bits unset. This command would in other words be exactly the same as the --tcp-flags SYN,RST,ACK SYN match. Such packets are mainly used to request new TCP connections from a server. If you block these packets, you should have effectively blocked all incoming connection attempts. However, you will not have blocked the outgoing connections, which a lot of exploits today use (for example, hacking a legitimate service and then installing a program or suchlike that enables initiating an existing connection to your host, instead of opening up a new port on it). This match can also be inverted with the ! sign in this, ! --syn, way. This would match all packets with the RST or the ACK bits set, in other words packets in an already established connection.
Match --tcp-option
Kernel 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6
Example iptables -p tcp --tcp-option 16
Explanation This match is used to match packets depending on their TCP options. A TCP Option is a specific part of the header. This part consists of 3 different fields. The first one is 8 bits long and tells us which Options are used in this stream, the second one is also 8 bits long and tells us how long the options field is. The reason for this length field is that TCP options are, well, optional. To be compliant with the standards, we do not need to implement all options, but instead we can just look at what kind of option it is, and if we do not support it, we just look at the length field and can then jump over this data. This match is used to match different TCP options depending on their decimal values. It may also be inverted with the ! flag, so that the match matches all TCP options but the option given to the match. For a complete list of all options, take a closer look at the Internet Engineering Task Force who maintains a list of all the standard numbers used on the Internet.

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