Книга: Объектно-ориентированный анализ и проектирование с примерами приложений на С++

Литературные ссылки

Литературные ссылки

Предисловие

Mills, Н. 1985. DPMA and Human Productivity. Houscon, TX: Data Processing Management, Association.

Часть I. Концепции

Wagner, J. 1986. The Search for Signs of Intelligent Life in the Universe. New York, NY: Harper and Row, p.202. By permission of ICM. Inc.

Глава 1. Сложность

[1] Brooks, F. April 1987. No Silver Bullet: Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering. IEEE Computer vol.20(4), p.12.

[2] Peters, L. 1981. Software Design. New York, NY: Yourdon Press, p.22.

[3] Brooks. No Silver Bullet, p.11.

[4] Parnas, D. July 1985. Software Aspects ofStrategic Defense Systems. Victoria, Canada: University of Victoria. Report DCS-47-IR.

[5] Peter, L. 1986. The Peter Pyramid. New York, NY: William Morrow, p.153.

[6] Waldrop, M. 1992. Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos. New-York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

[7] Courtois, P. June 1985. On Time and Space Decomposition of Complex Structures. Communications of the ACM vol.28(6), p.596.

[8] Simon, H. 1982. The Sciences of the Artificial. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, p.218.

[9] Rechtin, E. October 1992. The Art of Systems Architecting. IEEE Spectrum, vol.29( 10), p.66.

[10] Simon. Sciences, p.217.

[11] Ibid, р. 221.

[12] Ibid, p.209.

[13] Gall, J. 1986. Systemantics: How Systems Really Work and How They Fail. Second Edition. Ann Arbor, MI: the General Systemantics Press, p.65.

[14] Miller, G. March 1956. The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information. The Psychological Reviev vol.63(2), p.86.

[15] Simon. Sciences, p.81.

[16] Dijktra, E. 1979. Programming Considered as a Human Activity. Classics in Software Engineering. New York, NY: Yourdon Press, p.5.

[17] Parnas, D. December 1985. Software Aspects of Strategic Defense Systems. Communications of the ACM vol.28(12), p.1328.

[18] Tsai, J. and Ridge, J. November 1988. Intelligent Support for Specifications Transformation. IEEE Software vol.5(6), p. 34.

[19] Stein, J. March 1988. Object-oriented Programming and Database Design. Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools for the Professional Programmer, No. 137, p.18.

[20] Peters. Software Design.

[21] Yau, S. and Tsai, J. June 1986. A Survey of Software Design Techniques. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering vol.SE-12(6).

[22] Teledyne Brown Engineering. Software Methodology Catalog. Report MC87-COMM/ADP-0036. October 1987. Tinton Falls, NJ.

[23] Sommerville, 1.1985. Software Engineering. Second Edition. Workingham, England: Addison-Wesley, p.68.

[24] Yourdon, E. and Constantine, L. 1979. Structured Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[25] Myers, G. 1978. Composite/Structured Design. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

[26] Page-Jones, M. 1988. The Practical Guide to Structured. Systems Design. Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Yourdon Press.

[27] Wirth, N. January 1983. Program Development by Stepwise Refinement. Communications of the ACM vol.26(1).

[28] Wirth, N. 1986. Algorithms and Data Structures. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[29] Dahl, O., Dijkstra, E. and Hoare, C.A.R. 1972. Structured Programming. London. England: Academic Press.

[30] Mills, H., Linger, R. and Hevner, A. 1986. Principles of Information System Design and Analysis. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

[31] Jackson, M. 1975. Principles of Program Design. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

[32] Jackson, M. 1983. System Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[33] Orr, K. 1971. Structured Systems Development. New York, NY: Yourdon Press.

[34| Langdon, G. 1982. Computer Design. San Jose, CA: Computeach Press, p.6.

[35] Miller. Magical Number, p.95.

[36] Shaw, M. 1981. ALPHARD: From and Content. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, p.6.

[37] Goldberg, A. 1984. Smalltalft-80: The Interactive Programming Environment. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.80.

[38] Petroski, H. 1985. To Engineerls Human. St Martin's Press: New York, p.40.

[39] Dijkstra, E. January 1993. American Programmer vol.6(1).

[40] Mostow, J. Spring 1985. Toward Better Models of the Design Process. Al Magazine vol.6(1), p.44.

[41] Stroustrup, В. 1991. The C++ Programming Language. Second Edition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.366.

[42] Eastman, N. 1984. Software Engineering and Technology. Technical Directions vol.10(1): Bethesda, MD: IBM Federal Systems Division, p.5.

[43] Brooks. No Silver Bullet, p.10.

Глава 2. Объектная модель

[1] Rentsch, Т. September 1982. Object-Oriented Programming. SIGPLAN Notices vol.17(12), p.51.

[2] Wegner, P. June 1981. The Ada Programming Language and Environment. Unpublished draft.

[3] Abbott, R. August 1987. Knowledge Abstraction. Communications of the ACM vol.30(8), p.664.

[4] Ibid, p.664.

[5] Shankar, K. 1984. Data Design: Types, Structures, and Abstractions. Handbook of Software Engineering. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, p.253.

[6] Macintosh MacApp 1.1.1 Programmer's Reference. 1986. Cupertino, CA: Apple Computer, p.2.

[7] Bhaskar, K. October 1983. How Object-oriented Is Your System? SICPLAK Notices vol.18(10), p.8.

[8] Stefik, M. and Bobrow, D. Winter 1986. Object-oriented Programming: Themes and Variations, AI Magazine vol.6(4), p.41.

[9] Yonezawa, A. and Tokoro, M. 1987. ObjecE-Oriented Concurrent Programming. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, p.2.

[10] Levy, H. 1984. Capability-Based Computer Systems. Bedford, MA: Digital Press, p.13.

[11] Ramamoorthy, С. and Sheu, P. Fall 1988. Object-oriented Systems. IEEE Expert vol.3(3), p.14.

[12] Myers, G. 1982. Advances in Computer Architecture. Second Edition. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, p.58.

[13] Levy. Capability-Based Computer.

[14] Kavi, K. and Chen, D. 1987. Architectural Support for Object-oriented Languages. Proceedings of the Thirty-second IEEE Computer Society International Conference. IEEE.

[15] iAPX432 Object Primer. 1981. Santa Clara, CA: Intel Corporation.

[16] Dally, W.J. and Kajiya.J.T. March 1985. An Object-oriented Architecture, SIGARCH Newsletter vol.13(3).

[17] Dahlby, S., Henry, G., Reynolds, D. and Taylor, P. 1982. The IBM System/38: A High Level Machine, in Computer Structures: Principles and Examples. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

[18] Dijkstra. E. May 1968. The Structure of the "THE" Multiprogramming System. Communications of the ACM vol.11(5).

[19] Pashtan, A. 1982. Object-Oriented Operating Systems: An Emerging Design Methodology. Proceedings of the ACM'S2 Conference. ACM.

[20] Parnas, D. 1979. On the Criteria to the Be Used in Decomposing Systems into Modules, in Classics in Software Engineering. New York, NY: Yourdon Press.

[21] Liskov, B. and Zilles, S. 1977. An Introduction to Formal Specifications of Data Abstractions. Current Trends in Programming Methodology: Software Specification and Design vol.1. Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[22] Guttag, J. 1980. Abstract Data Types and the Development of Data Structures, in Programming Language Design. New York, NY: Computer Society Press.

[23] Shaw. Abstraction Techniques.

[24] Nygaard, K. and Dahl, O-J. 1981. The Development of the Simula Languages, in History of Programming Languages. New York, NY: Academic Press, p.460.

[25] Atkinson, M. and Buneman, P. June 1987. Types and Persistence in Database Programming Languages. ACM Computing Surveys vol.19(2), p.105.

[26] Rumbaugh, J. April 1988. Relational Database Design Using an Object-oriented Methodology. Communications of the ACM vol.31(4), p.415.

[27] Chen, P. March 1976. The Entity-Relationship Model - Toward a Unified View of Data. ACM Transactions on Database Systems vol.1(1).

[28] Barr,A.and Feigenbaum. E. 1981. The Handbook ofArtificial Intelligence. vol.1.Los Altos, CA: William Kaufmann, p.216.

[29] Stillings, N., Feinstein, M., Garfield.J., Rissland, E., Rosenbaum, D., Weisler. S., Baker-Ward, L. 1987. Cognitive Science: An Introduction. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, p.305.

[30] Rand, Ayn. 1979. Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology. New York, NY: New American Library.

[31] Minsky, M. 1986. The Society of Mind. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

[32] Jones, A. 1979. The Object Model: A Conceptual Tool for Structuring Software. Operating Systems. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, p.8.

[33] Stroustrup, В. May 1988. What Is Object-oriented Programming? IEEE Software vol.5(3), p.10.

[34] Cardelli, L. and Wegner, P. On Understanding Types, Data Abstraction, and Polymorphism. December 1985. ACM Computing Surveys vol.17(4). p.481.

[35] DeMarco, T. 1979. Structured Analysis and System Specification. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[36] Yourdon, E. 1989. Modem Structured Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[37] Gane, C. and Sarson, T. 1979. Structured Systems Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[38] Ward, P. and Mellor, S. 1985. Structured Development for Real-Time Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Yourdon Press.

[39] Hatley, D. and Pirbhai, 1.1988. Strategies for Real-Time System Specification. New York, NY: Dorset House.

[40] Jenkins, M. and Glasgow, J. January 1986. Programming Styles in Nial. IEEE Software vol.3(1), p.48.

[41] Bobrow, D. and Stefik, M. February 1986. Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence Programming. Science vol.231, p.951.

[42] Dahl, O., Dijkstra, E. and Hoare, C.A.R. 1972. Structured Programming. London, England: Academic Press, p.83.

[43] Shaw, M. October 1984. Abstraction Techniques in Modern Programming Languages. IEEE Software vol.1(4), p.10.

[44] Berzins, V. Gray, M. and Naumann, D. May 1986. Abstraction-Based Software Development. Communications of the ACM vol. 29(5), p.403.

[45] Abelson, H. and Sussman, G. 1985. Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, p.126.

[46] Ibid, p.132.

[47] Seidewitz, E. and Stark, M. 1986. Towards a General Object-oriented Software Development Methodology. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Ada Programming Language Applications for the NASA Space Station. NASA Lyndon B.Johnson Space Center. TX: NASA, p.D.4.6.4.

[48] Meyer, B. 1988. Object-oriented Software Construction. New York. NY: Prentice-Hall.

[49] Wirfs-Brock. R. and Wilkerson, B. October 1989. Object-oriented Design: A Responsibility-Driven Approach. SICPLAN Notices vol.24(10).

[50] Ingalls, D. The Smalltalk-76 Programming System Design and Implementation. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages. ACM, p.9.

[51] Gannon.J., Hamlet. R. and Mills. H. July 1987. Theory of Modules. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering vol.SE-13(7), p.820.

[52] Date, С. 1986. Relational Database: Selected Writings. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.180.

[53] Liskov, B. May 1988. Data Abstraction and Hierarchy. SIGPLAN Notices vol.23(5). p.19.

[54] Britton, K. and Parnas. D. December 8. 1981. A-7E Softs-are Module Guide. Washington, D.C. Naval Research Laboratory, Report 4702, p.24.

[55] Gabriel, R. 1990. Private Communication.

[56] Stroustrup, B. 1988. Private Communication.

[57] Myers. G. 1978. Composite/Structured Design. New York. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, p.21.

[58] Liskov, B. 1980. A Design Methodology for Reliable Software Systems, in Tutorial on Software Design Techniques. Third Edition. New York, NY: IEEE Computer Society, p.66.

[59] Zelkowitz, M. June 1978. Perspectives on Software Engineering. ACM Computing Surveys vol.10(2), p.20.

[60] Parnas, D., Clements, P. and Weiss, D. March 1985. The Modular Structure of Complex Systems. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering vol.SE-11(3), p.260.

[61] Britton and Parnas. A-7E Software, p.2.

[62] Parnas. D., Clements, P. and Weiss, D. 1983. Enhancing Reusability with Information Hiding. Proceedings of the Workshop on Reusability in Programming. Stratford, CT: ITT Programming. p.241.

[63] Meyer. Object-oriented Software Construction, a. 47.

[64] Сох, В. 1986. Object-Oriented Programming: An Evolutionary Approach. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.69.

[65] Danforth, S. and Tomlinson. C. March 1988. Type Theories and Object-Oriented Programming. ACM Computing Surveys vol.20(1), p.34.

[66] Liskov. 1988. р. 23.

[67] As quoted in Liskov. 1980. p.67.

[68] Zilles, S. 1984. Types, Algebras, and Modeling, in On Conceptual Modeling: Perspectives from Artificial Intelligence. Databases, and Programming Languages. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, p.442.

[69] Doming, A. and Ingalls, D. 1982. A Type Declaration and Inference System for Smalltalk. Palo Alto, CA: Xerox Palo Research Center, p.134.

[70] Wegner. P. October 1987. Dimensions of Object-oriented Language Design. SIGPLAN Notices vol.22(12). p.171.

[71] Stroustrup, B. 1992. Private communication.

[72] Tesler, L. August 1981. The Smalltalk Environment. Byte vol.6(8), p.142.

[73] Borning and Ingalls. Type Declaration, p.133.

[74] Thomas, D. March 1989. What's in an Object? Byte vol.14(3), p.232.

[75] Lim, J. and Johnson, R. April 1989. The Heart of Object-oriented Concurrent Programming. SIGPLAN Notices vol.24(4), p.165.

[76] Ibid, p.l65.

[77] Black, A., Hutchinson, N., Jul, E., Levy, H. and Carter, L. July 1986. Distribution and Abstract Types in Emerald. Report 86-02-04. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, p.3.

[78] Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN Workshop on Object-Based Concurrent Programming. April 1989. SIGPLAN Notices vol.24(4), p.1.

[79] Atkinson, M., Bailey, P., Chisholm, K., Cockshott, P. and Morrison, R. 1983. An Approach to Persistent Programming. The Computer Journal vol.26(4), p.360.

[80] Khoshafian, S. and Copeland, G. November 1986. Object Identity. SIGPLAN Notices vol.21(11), p.409.

[81] Vbase Technical Overview. September 1987. Billerica, MA: Ontologic, p.4.

[82] Stroustrup, В. November 1987. Possible Directions for C++. Proceedings of the USENIX C++ Workshop. Santa Fe, NM, p.14.

[83] Meyer. Object-oriented Software Construction, p.30-31.

[84] Robson, D. August 1981. Object-oriented Software Systems, Byte vol.6(8), p.74.

Глава 3. Классы и объекты

[1] Lefrancois, G. 1977. Of Children: An Introduction to Child Development. Second Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, p.244-246.

[2] Nygaard, K. and Dahl, O-J. 1981. The Development of the Simula Languages, in History of Programming Languages. New York, NY: Academic Press, p.462.

[3] Halbert, D. and O'Brien, P. September 1988. Using Types and Inheritance in Object-oriented Programming. IEEE Software vol. 4(5), p.73.

[4] Smith, M. and Tockey, S. 1988. An Integrated Approach to Software Requirements Definition Using Objects. Seattle, WA: Boeing Commercial Airplane Support Division, p.132.

[5] Сох, В. 1986. Object-oriented Programming: An Evolutionary Approach. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.29.

[6] MacLennan, B. December 1982. Values and Objects in Programming Languages. SICPLAN Notices vol.17(12), p.78.

[7] Lippman, S. 1989. C++ Primer. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.185.

[8] Adams, S. 1993. Private communication.

[9] Wirfs-Brock, R.,Wilkerson, В. and Wiener, L. 1990. Designing Object-oriented Software. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, p.61.

[10] Rubin, K. 1993. Private communication.

[11] Macintosh MacApp 1.1.1 Programmer's Reference. 1986. Cupertino. CA: Apple Computer, p.4.

[12] Khoshafian, S. and Copeland, G. November 1986. Object Identity. SIGPLAN Notices vol.21(ll).p.406.

[13] Ingalls, D. 1981. Design Principles behind Smalltalk. Byte vol.6(8), p.290.

[14] Gall, J. 1986. Systemantics: Ноw Systems Really Work and How They Fail. Second. Edition. Ann Arbor, MI: The General Systemantics Press, p.158.

[15] Seidewitz, E. and Stark, M. 1986. Towards a General Object-oriented Software Development Methodology. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Ada Programming Language Applications for the NASA Space Station. NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. TX: NASA. p.D.4.6.4.

[16] Rumbaugh, J., Blaha, M., Premerlani, W., Eddy, F. and Lorensen, W. 1991. Object-oriented Modeling and Design. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, p.459.

[17] Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, unabridged. 1986. Chicago. Illinois: Merriam-Webster.

[18] Stroustrup, B. 1991. The C++ Programming Language, Second Edition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.422.

[19] Meyer, B. 1987. Programmingas Contracting. Report TR-EI-12/CO. Goleta, CA: Interactive Software Engineering.

[20] Snyder, A. November 1986. Encapsulation and Inheritance in Object-oriented Programming Languages. SIGPLAN Notices vol. 21(11).

[21] LaLonde, W. April 1989. Designing Families of Data Types Using Exemplars. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems vol.11(2), p.214.

[22] Rumbaugh, J. April 1988. Relational Database Design Using an Object-oriented Methodology. Communications of the ACM vol.31(4), p.417.

[23] Lieberman, H. November 1986. Using Prototypical Objects to Implement Shared Behavior in Object-oriented Systems. SIGPLAN Notices vol.21(11).

[24] Rumbaugh,1991.p.312.

[25] Brachman, R. October 1983. What IS-A Is and Isn't: An Analysis of Taxonomic Links in Semantic Networks. IEEE Computer vol.16(10), p.30.

[26] Micallef, J. April/May 1988. Encapsulation, Reusability, and Extensibility in Object-oriented Programming Languages. Journal of Object-oriented Programming vol.1(1). p.15.

[27] Snyder. Encapsulation, p.39.

[28] Cardelli, L. and Wegner. P. On Understanding Types, Data Abstraction, and Polymorphism. December 1985. ACM Computing Surveys vol.17(4), p.475.

[29] As quoted in Harland, D., Szyplewski, M. and Wainwright, J. October 1985. An Alternative View of Polymorphism. SIGPLAN Notices vol.20( 10).

[30] Kaplan, S. and Johnson, R. July 21,1986. Designing and Implementing/or Reuse. Urbana. IL University of Illinois, Department of Computer Science, p.8.

[31] Deutsch, P. 1983. Efficient Implementation of the Smalltalk-80 System, in Proceedings of the 11th Annual ACM Symposium on the Principles a/Programming Languages, p.300.

[32] Ibid, p.299.

[33] Duff, С. August 1986. Designing an Efficient Language. Byte vol.11(8), p.216.

[34] Stroustrup, В. 1988. Private communication.

[35] Stroustrup, В. November 1987. Possible Directions for C++. Proceedings of the USENIX C++ Workshop. Santa Fe, New Mexico, p.8.

[36] Keene, S. 1989. Object-Oriented Programming in Common Lisp. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.44.

[37] Winston. P. and Horn. B. 1989. Lisp. Third Edition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.510.

[38] Micallef, J. April/May 1988. Encapsulation. Reusability, and Extensibility in Object-Oriented Programming Languages. Journal of Object-Oriented Programming vol.1 (1), p.25.

[39] Snyder. Encapsulation, p.41.

[40] Vlissides, J. and Linton, M. 1988. Applying Object-oriented Design to Structured Graphics. Proceedings of USENIX C++ Conference. Berkeley, CA: USENIX Association, p.93.

[41] Meyer, В. 1988. Object-oriented Software Construction. New York. NY: Prentice-Hall, p.274.

[42] Keene. Object-oriented Programming, p.118.

[43] Snyder. Encapsulation, p.43.

[44] Hendler, J. October 1986. Enhancement for Multiple Inheritance. SIGPLAN Notice vol.21(10), p.100.

[45] Stroustrup, 1987. p.3.

[46] Stroustrup, В. 1988. Parameterized Types for C++. Proceedings of USENIX C++ Conference. Berkley, CA: USENIX Association, p.1.

[47] Meyer, В. November 1986. Gcnericity versus Inheritance. SIGPLAN Notices vol.21(11), p.402.

[48] Stroustrup. 1988, p.4.

[49] Robson, D. August 1981. Object-oriented Software Systems. Byte vol.6(8), p.86.

[50] Goldberg, A. and Robson, D. 1983. Smalltalk-80: The Language and Its Implementation. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.287.

[51] Ingalls, D. August 1981. Design Principles Behind Smalltalk. Byte vol.6(8), p.286.

[52] Stevens, W., Myers. G. and Constantine, L. 1979. Structured Design, in Classics in Software Engineering. New York, NY: Yourdon Press, p.209.

[53] Page-Jones, M. 1988. The Practical Guide to Structured Systems Design. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Yourdon Press, p.59.

[54] Meyer. 1987, p.4.

[55] Halbert, D. and O'Brien, P. September 1988. Using Types and Inheritance in Object-oriented Programming. IEEE Software vol.4(5), p.74.

[56] Sakkinen, M. December 1988. Comments on "the Law of Demeter" and C++. SIGPLAN Notices vol.23(12), p.36.

[57] Lea, D. August 12,1988. User's Guide to GNU C++ Library. Cambridge. MA: Free Software Foudation, p.12.

[58] Ibid.

[59] Meyer. 1988, р. 332.

[60] Wirth, N. 1986. Algorithms and Data Structures. Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice-Hall, p.37.

[61] Keene. Object-oriented Programming, p.68.

[62] Parnas, D., Clements, P. and Weiss, D. 1989. Enhancing Reusability with Information Hiding. Software Reusability. New York, NY: ACM Press, p.143.

Глава 4. Классификация

[1] As quoted in Swaine, M. June 1988. Programming Paradigms. Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools. No.140, p.110.

[2] Michalski, R. and Stepp, R. 1983. Learning from Observation: Conceptual Clustering, in Machine Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach. Palo Alto, CA: Tioga. p.332.

[3] Alexander, С. 1979. The Timeless Way of Building. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, p.203.

[4] Darwin, С. 1984. The Origin of Species. vol.49 of Great Books of the Western World. Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica, p.207.

[5] The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 1985. Chicago, IL Encyclopedia Britannica. vol.3, p.356.

[6] Gould, S. June 1992. We Are All Monkey's Uncles. Natural History.

[7] May, R. September 16,1988. How Many Species Are There on Earth? Science vol.241, p.1441.

[8] As quoted in Lewin, R. November 4,1988. Family Relationships Are a Biological Conundrum. Science vol.242, p.671.

[9] The New Encyclopedia Britannica vol.3, p.156.

[10] Descartes, R. 1984. Rules for the Direction of the Mind. vol.31 of Great Books of the Western World. Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica, p.32.

[11] Shaw, M. May 1989. Larger Scale Systems Require Higher-Level Abstractions. SIGSOFT Engineering Notes vol.14(3), p.143.

[12] Goldstein, Т. May 1989. The Object-oriented Programmer. The C++ Report vol.1(5).

[13] Coombs, С., Raiffa, H. and Thrall, R. 1954. Some Views on Mathematical Models and Measurement Theory. Psychological Review vol.61(2), p.132.

[14] Flood, R. and Carson, E. 1988. Dealing with Complexity. New York, NY: Plenum Press, p.8.

[15] Birtwistle, G., Dahl, O-J., Myhrhaug, В. and Nygard, K. 1979. Simula begin. Lund. Sweden: Studentlitteratur, p.23.

[16] Heinlein, R. 1966. The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress. New York, NY: The Berkeley Publishing Group, p.11.

[17] Sowa, J. 1984. Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.16.

[18] Lakoff, G. 1987. Women. Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, p.161.

[19] Stepp, R. and Michalski, R. February 1986. Conceptual Clustering of Structured Objects: A Goal-Oriented Approach. Artificial Intelligence vol.28( 1), p.53.

[20] Wegner, P. 1987. The Object-Oriented Classification Paradigm, in Research Directions in Object-Oriented Programming. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, p.480.

[21] Aquinas, Т. 1984. Summa Theologica. vol.19 of Great Books of the Western World. Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica, p.71.

[22] Maier, H. 1969. Three Theories of Child Development: The Contributions of Erik H. Erickson, Jean Piaget and Robert R. Sears, and Their Applications. New York, NY: Harper and Row, p.111.

[23] Lakoff. Women. Fire, p.32.

[24] Minsky, M. 1986. The Society of Mind. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, p.199.

[25] The Great Ideas: A Syntopicon of Great Books of the Western World. 1984. vol.1 of Great Books of the Western World. Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica, p.293.

[26] Kosko, В. 1992. Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, p.xx.

[27] Stepp, p.44.

[28] Lakoff. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things, p. 7.

[29] Ibid, p.16. Live By. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, p.122.

[31] Meyer, В. 1988. Private communication.

[32] Shlaer, S. and Mellor, S. 1988. Object-oriented Systems Analysis: Modeling the World in Data. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Yourdon Press, p.15.

[33] Ross, R. 1987. Entity Modeling: Techniques and Application. Boston, MA: Database Research Group, p.9.

[34] Coad, P. and Yourdon, E. 1990. Object-oriented Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, p.62.

[35] Shlaer, S. and Mellor, S. 1992. Object Lifecycles: Modeling the World in States. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Yourdon Press.

[36] Wirfs-Brock, R., Wilkerson, B. and Wiener, L. 1990. Designing Object-oriented Software. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, p.61.

[37] Rubin, K. and Goldberg, A. September 1992. Object Behavior Analysis. Communications of the ACM, vol.35(9), p.48.

[38] Dreger, В. 1989. Function Point Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, p.4.

[39] Arango, G. May 1989. Domain Analysis: From Art Form to Engineering Discipline. SIGSOFT Engineering Notes vol.14(3), p. 153.

[40] Moore, J. and Bailin, S. 1988. Position Paper on Domain Analysis. Laurel, MD: СТА, р. 2.

[41] Jacobson, I., Christerson, M.,Jonsson, P. and Overgaard, G. 1992. Object-oriented Software Engineering. Workingham, England: Addison-Wesley, p.VIII.

[42] Zahniseer, R. July/August 1990. Building Software In Groups. American Programmer, vol.3(7-8).

[43] Goldstein, N. and Alger, J. 1992. Developing Object-oriented Software for the Macintosh. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, p.161.

[44] Beck, K. and Cunningham, W. October 1989. A Laboratory for Teaching Object-oriented Thinking. SIGPLAN Notices vol. 24(10).

[45] Abbott, R. November 1983. Program Design by Informal English Descriptions. Communications of the ACM vol.26(11).

[46] Saeki, M., Horai, H. and Enomoto, H. May 1989. Software Development Process from Natural Language Specification. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Software Engineering. New York, NY: Computer Society Press of the IEEE.

[47] McMenamin, S. and Palmer, J. 1984. Essential Systems Analysis. New York, NY: Yourdon Press, p.267.

[48] Ward, P. and Mellor, S. 1985. Structured Development for Real-time Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Yourdon Press.

[49] Seidewitz, E. and Stark, M. August 1986. General Object-oriented Software Development, Report SEL-86-002. Greenbelt, MD: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, p.5-2.

[50] Seidewitz, E. 1990. Private Communication.

[51] Goldberg, A. 1984. Smalltalk-80: The Interactive Programming Environment. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.77.

[52] Thomas, D. May/June 1989. In Search of an Object-oriented Development Process. Journal of Object-Oriented Programming vol.2(1), p.61.

[53] Stroustrup, В. 1986. The C++ Programming Language. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.7.

[54] Halbert, D. and O'Brien, P. September 1988. Using Types and Inheritance in Object-oriented Programming. IEEE Software vol.4(5), p.75.

[55] Stefik, M. and Bobrow, D. Winter 1986. Object-oriented Programming: Themes and Variations, Al Magazine vol.6(4), p.60.

[56] Stroustrup, В. 1991. The C++ Programming Language, Second Edition. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, p.377.

[57] Stefik and Bobrow. Object-oriented Programming, p.58.

[58] Lins, С. 1989. A First Look at Literate Programming. Structured Programming.

[59] Gabriel, R. 1990. Private communication.

[60] Coplien, J. 1992. Advanced C++ Programming Styles and Idioms. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. in HOOPLA: Hooray for Object-oriented Programming Languages. Everette, WA: Object-oriented Programming for Smalltalk Applications Developers Association vol.1(4), p.6.

[62] Russo, V., Johnston, G. and Campbell, R. September 1988. Process Management and Exception Handling in Multiprocessor Operating Systems Using Object-oriented Design Techniques. SIGPLAN Notices vol.23(11), p.249.

[63] Englemore, R. and Morgan, Т. 1988. Blackboard Systems. Wokingham, England: Addison-Wesley, p.v.

[64] Coad, P. September 1992. Object-oriented Patterns. Communications of the ACM, vol.35(9).

Часть II. Метод

Petroski, H. 1985. То Engineer is Human. New York, NY: St Martin's Press, p.73.

Глава 5. Обозначения

[1] Shear, D. December 8, 1988. CASE Shows Promise, but Confusion Still Exists. EDN vol.33(25), p.168. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

[3] Defense Science Board. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Military Software. September 1987. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, p.8.

[4] Kleyn, M. and Gingrich, P. September 1988. GraphTrace - Understanding Object-Oriented Systems Using Concurrently Animated Views. SIGPLAN Notices vol.23(11), p.192.

[5] Weinberg, G. 1988. Rethinking Systems Analysis and Design. New York, NY: Dorset House, p.157.

[6] Intel. 1981. iAPX432 Object Primer. Santa Clara. CA.

[7] Rumbaugh, J., Blaha, M., Premerlani, W., Eddy, F. and Lorensen, W. 1991. Object-oriented Modeling and Design. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

[8] Stroustrup, B. 1991. The C++ Programming Language. Second Edition. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

[9] Kiczales, G., Rivieres, J. and Bobrow, D. 1991.

[10] Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R., Vlissides, J. 1993. A Catalog of Object-oriented Design Patterns. Cupertino, California: Taligent.

[11] Harel, D. 1987. Statecharts: A Visual Formalism for Complex Systems. Science of Computer Programming vol.8.

[12] Rumbaugh, Object-oriented Modeling and Design.

[13] Bear, S., Alien, P., Coleman, D. and Hayes, F. Graphical Specification of Object-oriented Systems. Object-oriented Programming Systems, Languages, and Applications. Ottawa, Canada: OOPSLA'90.

[14] Rumbaugh, Object-oriented Modeling and Design.

[15] Jacobson, I., Christerson, M., Johnson, P. and Overgaard, G. 1992. Object-oriented Software Engineering. Workingham, England: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Глава 6. Процесс

[1] Brooks, F. 1975. The Mythical Man-Month. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.42.

[2] Stroustrup, В. 1991. The C++ Programming Language, Second Edition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

[3] Maccoby, M. December 1991. The Innovative Mind at Work. IEEE Spectrum, vol.28(12).

[4] Lammers, S. 1986. Programmers at Work. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press.

[5] Druke, M. 1989. Private Communication.

[6] Jones, C. September 1984. Reusability in Programming: A Survey of the State of the Art. IEEE transactions on Software Engineering, vol.SE-10(5).

[7] Humphrey, W. 1989. Managing the Software Process. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.5.

[8] Curtis, В. May 17, 1989. ...But You Have to Understand, This Isn't the Way We Develop Software at Our Company. MCC Technical Report Number STP-203-89. Austin, TX: Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, p.x.

[9] Parnas, D. and Clements, P. 1986. A Rational Design Process: How and Why to Fake It. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering vol.SE-12(2).

[10] Boehm, B. August 1986. A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement. Software Engineering Notes vol.11(4), p.22.

[11] Stroustrup, B. 1991. The C++ Programming Language, Second Edition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.362.

[12] Brownsword, L 1989. Private communication.

[13] Stroustrup, p.373.

[14] Vonk, R. 1990. Prototyping. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, p.31.

[15] Gilb, Т. 1988. Principles of Software Engineering Management. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.92.

[16] Mellor, S., Hecht, A., Tryon, D. and Hywari, W. September 1988. Object-oriented Analysis: Theory and Practice, Course Notes, in Object-oriented Programming Systems, Languages, and Applications. San Diego, CA: OOPSLA'88, p.1.3.

[17] Symons, С. 1988. Function Point Analysis: Difficulties and Improvements. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering vol.14(1).

[18] Dreger, B. 1989. Function Point Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, p.5.

[19] deChampeaux, D., Balzer, В., Bulman, D., Culver-Lozo, K., Jacobson, I., Mellor, S. The Object-oriented Software Development Process. Vancouver, Canada: OOPSLA'92.

[20] Davis, A. 1990. Software Requirements: Analysis and Specification. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[21] Rubin, K. 1993. Private communication.

[22] Jacobson, I., Christerson, M., Jonsson, P., and Overgaard, G. 1992. Object-oriented Software Engineering. Workingham, England: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

[23] Rubin, K. and Goldberg, A. September 1992. Object Behavior Analysis. Communications of the ACM vol.35(9).

[24] Andert, G. 1992. Private communication.

[25] Page-Jones, M. 1988. The Practical Guide to Structured Systems Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Yourdon Press, pp.261-265.

[26] Stefik, M. and Bobrow, D. Winter 1986. Object-oriented Programming: Themes and Variations, AI Magazine vol.6(4), p.41.

[27] Меуеr, В. 1988. Object-oriented Software Construction. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall, p.340.

[28] Andert, G. 1993. Private communication.

[29] Walsh, J. Preliminary Defect Data from the Iterative Development of a Large C++ Program. Vancouver. Canada: OOPSLA'92.

[30] Chmura, L., Norcio, A. and Wicinski, T. July 1990. Evaluating Software Design Processes by Analyzing Change Date Over Time. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering vol.16(7).

[31] As quoted in Sommerville, I. 1989. Software Engineering. Third Edition. Wokingham, England: Addison-Wesley, p.546.

Глава 7. Практические вопросы

[1] Dijkstra, E. May 1986. The Structure of the "THE" Multiprogramming System. Communications of the ACM vol.11(5), p.341.

[2] Kishida, K., Teramoto, M., Torri, K. and Urano, Y. September 1988. Quality Assurance Technology in Japan. IEEE Software vol.4(5), p.13.

[3] Hawryszkiewycz, 1.1984. Database Analysis and Design. Chicago, IL: Science Reserch Associates, p.115.

[4] van Genuchten, M. June 1991. Why is Software Late? An Empirical Study of Reasons for Delay in Software Development. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering vol.17(6), p.589.

[5] Gilb, Т. 1988. Principles of Software Engineering Management. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, p.73.

[6] As quoted in Zelkowitz, M. June 1978. Perspectives on Software Engineering. ACM Computing Surveys vol.10(2), p.204.

[7] Showalter, J. 1989. Private communication.

[8] Davis, A., Bersoff, E. and Comer, E. October 1988. A Strategy for Comparing Alternative Software Develpopment Lite Cycle Models. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering vol.14(10), p.1456.

[9] Goldberg, A. 1993. Private communication.

[10] Schulmer, G. and McManus, J. 1992. Handbook of Software Quality Assurance, second Edition. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, p.5.

[11] Schulmeyer, p.7.

[12] Schulmeyer, p.184.

[13] Schulmeyer, p.169.

[14] Walsh, J. Preliminary Defect Data from the Iterative Development of a Large C++ Program. Vancouver, Canada: OOPSLA'92.

[15] Chidamber, S. and Kemerer, C. 1993. A Metrics Suite for Object-Oriented Design. Cambridg, Massachusetts: MIT Sloan School of Management.

[16] Lang, K. and Peralmutter, B. November 1986. Oaklisp: an Object-oriented Scheme with First-Class Types. SIGPLAN Notices vol.21(11), p.34.

[17] Meyrowitz, N. November 1986. Intermedia: The Architecture and Construction of an Object-oriented Hypermedia System and Applications Framework. SIGPLAN Notices, vol.21(11), p.200.

[18] Kempf, R. October 1987. Teaching Object-oriented Programming With the KEE System. SIGPLAN Notices, vol.22( 12), p.11.

[19] Schmucker, K. 1986. Object-oriented Programming for the Macintosh. Hasbrouk Heights, NJ: Hayden, p.11.

[20] Taylor, D. 1992. Object-oriented Information Systems. New York, New York John Wiley and Sons.

[21] Pinson, L. and Wiener, R. 1990. Applications of Object-oriented Programming. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

[22] Simonian, R. and Crone, M. November/December 1988. InnovAda: True Object-Oriented Programming in Ada. Journal of Object-Oriented Programming vol.1(4), p.19.

[23] Pascoe, G. August 1986. Elements of Object-oriented Programming. Byte vol.11(8), p.144.

[24] Russo, V. and Kaplan, S. 1988. А C++ Interpreter for Scheme. Proceedings of USENIX C++ Conference. Berkeley, CA: USENIX Association, p.106.

Часть III. Примеры приложений

Minsky, M. April 1970. Form and Content in Computer Science. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery vol.17(2), p.197.

Глава 9. Среда разработки: библиотека базовых классов

[1] C++ Booch Components Class Catalog. 1992. Santa Clara, CA: Rational.

[2] Knuth, D. 1973. The Art of Computer Programming, Vol.1-3. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

[3] Aho, A., Hopcroft, J. and Ullman, J. 1974. The Design and Analysis of Computer Programs. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

[4] Kernighan, B. and Plauger, P. 1981. Software Tools in Pascal. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

[5] Sedgewick, R. 1983. Algorithms. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

[6] Stubbs, D. and Webre, N. 1985. Data Structures with Abstract Data Types and Pascal. CA: Brooks/Cole.

[7] Tenenbaum, A. and Augenstein, M. 1981. Data Structures Using Pascal. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[8] Wirth, N. 1986. Algorithms and Data Structures, Second Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[9] Wirfs-Brock, R. October 1991. Object-Oriented Frameworks. American Programmer vol.4(10), p.27.

[10] Stroustrup, Bjarne. 1991. The C++ Programming Language, Second Edition. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, p.429.

[11] Coggins, J. September 1990. Design and Management of C++ Libraries. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, p.1.

[12] Ellis, M. and Stroustrup, B. 1990. The Annotated C++ Reference Manual. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, p.155.

[13] Ellis and Stroustrup, p.297.

[14] Ellis and Stroustrup, p.90.

[15] Wirfs-Brock, 1993. Private communication.

[16] Jacobson, I., Christerson, M.,Jonsson, P. and Overgaard, G. 1992. Object-oriented Software Engineering. Workingham, England: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, p.184.

Глава 10. Архитектура клиент-сервер: складской учет

[1] Mirnno, P. April 1993. Client-Server Computing. American Programmer, Arlington MA: Cutter Information Corporation, p.19.

[2] Mimno, p.21.

[3] Berson, A. 1992. Client/Server Architecture. New York, NY: Me Graw-Hill, p.34.

[4] Berson, p.37.

[5] Berson, p.12.

[6] Berson, p.13.

[7] Date, С. 1981. An Introduction to Database Systems. Vol.1. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, p.4.

[8] Date. An Introduction, p.10.

[9] Hawryszkiewycz, 1.1984. Database Analysis and Design. Chicago, IL: Science Research Associates, p.425.

[10] Wiorkowski, G. and Kull, D. 1988. DB2 Design and Development Guide. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.29.

[11] Date. An Introduction, p.63.

[12] Wiorkowski and Kull. DB2 Design, p.2.

[13] Date. An Introduction, p.238.

[14] Wiorkowski and Kull. DB2 Design, p.15.

[15] Date, С. 1986. Relational Database: Selected Writings. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.461.

[16] Rumbaugh, J. July/August 1992. Onward to OOPSLA. Journal of Object-Oriented Programming, vol.5(4).

[17] Rumbaugh, J., Blaha, M., Premerlani, W., Eddy, F. and Lorensen, W. 1991. Object-oriented Modeling and Design. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, p.386.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Date. An Introduction, p.237.

[20] Berson, p.39.

[21] Berson, p.441.

[22] Date, С. 1987. The Guide to the SQL Standard. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.32.

[23] Berson, p.244.

[24] Berson, p.61.

[25] Ibid.

Глава 11. Искусственный интеллект: криптоанализ

[1] Erman, L., Lark, J. and Hayes-Roth, F. December 1998. ABE: An Environment for Engineering Intelligent Systems. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering vol.14(12), p.1758.

[2] Shaw, M. 1991. Heterogeneous Design Idioms for Software Architecture. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Carnegie Mellon University.

[3] Meyer, C. and Matyas. 1982. Cryptography. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, p.1.

[4] Nii, P. Summer 1986. Blackboard Systems: The Blackboard Model of Problem Solving and the Evolution of Blackboard Architectures. AI Magazine vol.7(2), p.46.

[5] Englemore, R. and Morgan, T. 1988. Blackboard Systems. Wokingham, England: Addison-Wesley, p.16.

[6] Ibid, p.19.

[7] Ibid, p.6.

[8] Ibid, p.12.

[9] Nii. Blackboard Systems, p.43.

[10] Englemore and Morgan. Blackboard Systems, p. 11.

Глава 12. Управление: контроль за движением поездов

[1] Murphy, E. December 1988. All Aboard for Solid State. IEEE Spectrum vol.25(13), p.42.

[2] Rockwell Advanced Railroad Electronic Systems. 1989. Cedar Rapids, IA: Rockwell International.

[3] Tanenbaum, A. 1981. Computer Networks. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Послесловие

Lefrancois, G. 1977. Of Children: An Introduction to Child Development, Second Edition. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth, p.371.

Приложение: Объектно-ориентированные языки программирования

[1] Wulf, W. January 1980. Trends in the Design and Implementation of Languages. IEEE Computer vol.13(1), p.15.

[2] Birtwistle, G., Dahl, O-J., Myhrhaug, В. and Nygard, K. 1979. Simula begin. Lund, Sweden: Studentlitteratur.

[3] Schmucker, K. 1986. Object-oriented Programming for the Macintosh. Hasbrouk Heights, NJ: Hayden, p.346.

[4] LaLonde, W. and Pugh, J. 1990. Inside Smalltalk, Volumes 1 and 2. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

[5] Ingalls, D. The Smalltalk-76 Programming System Design and Implementation. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, ACM, p.9.

[6] Borning, A. and Ingalls, D. 1982. Multiple Inheritance in Smalltalk-80. Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Meno Park, CA: AAAI.

[7] Goldberg, A. and Robson, D. 1989. Smalltalk-80: The Language. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

[8] Goldberg, A. 1984. Smalltalk-80: The Interactive Programming Environment. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

[9] Krasner, G. 1983. Smalltalk-80: Bits of History. Words of Advice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

[10] LaLonde, 1990.

[11] Schmucker, K. August 1986. Object-Oriented Languages for the Macintosh. Byte vol.11 (8), р. 179.

[12] Macintosh Programmer's Workshop Pascal 3.0 Reference. 1989. Cupertino, CA: Apple Computer.

[13] Stroustrup, B. 1986. The C++ Programming Language, Second Edition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.4.

[14] Gorlen, K. 1989. An Introduction to C++, in UNIX System VAT&T C++ Language System, Release 2.0 Selected Readings. Murray Hill, NJ: AT&T Bell Laboratories, p.2-1.

[15] Ellis, M. and Stroustrup, B. 1990. The Annotated C++ Reference Manual. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

[16] Stroustrup, B. 1991. The C++ Programming Language, Second Edition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

[17] Keene, S. 1989. Object-oriented Programming in Common Lisp. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, p.215.

[18] Bobrow, D. 1990. Private communication.

[19] Bobrow, D., DeMichiel, L., Gabriel, R., Keene, S., Kiczales, G. and Moon, D. September 1988. Common Lisp Object System Specification X3J13 Document 88-002R. SIGPLAN Notices vol.23.

[20] Reference Manual for the Ada Programming Language. February 1983. Washington, D.C.: Department of Defence, Ada Joint Program Office, p.1-3.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Meyer, B. 1988. Object-oriented Software Construction. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall.

[23] Saunders, J. March/April 1989. A Survey of Object-oriented Programming Languages. Journal of Object-oriented Programming vol.1(6).

[24] Ibid, p.6.

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