Книга: Windows Server 2012 R2 Storage, Security, & Networking Pocket Consultant

Configuring a static IP addresses

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Configuring a static IP addresses

When you assign a static IP address, you need to tell the computer the IP address you want to use, the subnet mask for this IP address, and, if necessary, the default gateway to use for internetwork communications. An IP address is a numeric identifier for a computer. IP addressing schemes vary according to how your network is configured, but they’re typically assigned based on a particular network segment.

IPv6 addresses and IPv4 addresses are very different. With IPv6, the first 64 bits represent the network ID and the remaining 64 bits represent the network interface. With IPv4, a variable number of the initial bits represent the network ID and the rest of the bits represent the host ID. For example, if you’re working with IPv4 and a computer on the network segment 10.0.10.0 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, the first three octets (8-bit groups) represent the network ID, and the address range you have available for computer hosts is 10.0.10.1 to 10.0.10.254. In this range, the address 10.0.10.255 is reserved for network broadcasts.

If you’re on a private network that is indirectly connected to the Internet, you should use private IPv4 addresses. Table 7–1 summarizes private network IPv4 addresses.

TABLE 7–1 Private IPv4 network addressing

PRIVATE NETWORK ID SUBNET MASK NETWORK ADDRESS RANGE
10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 0.0.0.0-10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 255.240.0.0 172.16.0.0-172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255

All other IPv4 network addresses are public and must be leased or purchased. If the network is connected directly to the Internet and you’ve obtained a range of IPv4 addresses from your Internet service provider, you can use the IPv4 addresses you’ve been assigned.

Using the ping command to check an address

Before you assign a static IP address, you should make sure that the address isn’t already in use or reserved for use with DHCP. With the ping command, you can check whether an address is in use. Open a command prompt and enter ping, followed by the IP address you want to check.

To test the IPv4 address 10.0.10.12, you would use the following command:

ping 10.0.10.12

To test the IPv6 address FEC0::02BC: FF:BECB: FE4F:961D, you would use the following command:

ping FEC0::02BC: FF:BECB: FE4F:961D

If you receive a successful reply from the ping test, the IP address is in use and you should try another one. If the request times out for all four ping attempts, the IP address isn’t active on the network at this time and probably isn’t in use; however, a firewall could be blocking your ping request. Your company’s network administrator would also be able to confirm whether an IP address is in use.

Configuring a static IPv4 or IPv6 address

One LAN connection is available for each network adapter installed. These connections are created automatically. To configure static IP addresses for a particular connection, follow these steps:

1. In Network And Sharing Center, tap or click Change Adapter Settings. In Network Connections, press and hold or right-click the connection with which you want to work, and then tap or click Properties.

2. Double-tap or double-click Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) or Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) as appropriate for the type of IP address you are configuring.

3. For an IPv6 address, do the following:

? Tap or click Use The Following IPv6 Address, and then enter the IPv6 address in the IPv6 Address text box. The IPv6 address you assign to the computer must not be in use anywhere else on the network.

? The Subnet Prefix Length option ensures that the computer communicates over the network properly. Windows Server 2012 R2 should insert a default value for the subnet prefix into the Subnet Prefix Length text box. If the network doesn’t use variable-length subnetting, the default value should suffice, but if it does use variable-length subnets, you need to change this value as appropriate for your network.

4. For an IPv4 address, do the following:

? Tap or click Use The Following IP Address, and then enter the IPv4 address in the IP Address text box. The IPv4 address you assign to the computer must not be in use anywhere else on the network.

? The Subnet Mask option ensures that the computer communicates over the network properly. Windows Server 2012 R2 should insert a default value for the subnet mask into the Subnet Mask text box. If the network doesn’t use variable-length subnetting, the default value should suffice, but if it does use variable-length subnets, you need to change this value as appropriate for your network.

5. If the computer needs to access other TCP/IP networks, the Internet, or other subnets, you must specify a default gateway. Enter the IP address of the network’s default router in the Default Gateway text box.

6. Domain Name System (DNS) is needed for domain name resolution. Enter a preferred address and an alternate DNS server address in the text boxes provided.

7. When you have finished, tap or click OK twice. Repeat this process for other network adapters and IP protocols you want to configure.

8. With IPv4 addressing, configure WINS as necessary.

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