Книга: Windows Server 2012 R2 Storage, Security, & Networking Pocket Consultant

Managing the File And Storage Services role

Managing the File And Storage Services role


A file server provides a central location for storing and sharing files across the network. When many users require access to the same files and application data, you should configure file servers in the domain. Although all servers are configured with basic file services, you must configure the File And Storage Services role and add any additional role services that might be needed.

Table 1–1 provides an overview of the role services associated with the File And Storage Services role. When you add any needed role services to a file server, you might also want to install the following optional features, available through the Add Roles And Features Wizard:

? Windows Server Backup The standard backup utility included with Windows Server 2012 R2.

? Enhanced Storage Supports additional functions made available by devices that support hardware encryption and enhanced storage. Enhanced storage devices support Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 1667 to provide enhanced security, which can include authentication at the hardware level of the storage device.

? Multipath I/O Provides support for using multiple data paths between a file server and a storage device. Servers use multiple I/O paths for redundancy in case of the failure of a path and to improve transfer performance.

Binaries needed to install roles and features are referred to as payloads . With Windows Server 2012 R2, payloads are stored in subfolders of the %SystemDrive%WindowsWinSXS folder. If the binaries for the tools have been removed, you might need to install the tools by specifying a source.

TABLE 1–1 Role services for file servers

ROLE SERVICE DESCRIPTION
BranchCache For Network Files Enables computers in a branch office to cache commonly used files from shared folders. It takes advantage of data deduplication techniques to optimize data transfers over the wide area networks (WAN) to branch offices.
Data Deduplication Uses subfile variable-size chunking and compression to achieve greater storage efficiency. This works by segmenting files into 32-KB to 128-KB chunks, identifying duplicate chunks, and replacing the duplicates with references to a single copy. Optimized files are stored as reparse points. After deduplication, files on the volume are no longer stored as data streams and instead are replaced with stubs that point to data blocks within a common chunk store.
DFS Namespaces Enables you to group shared folders located on different servers into one or more logically structured namespaces. Each namespace appears as a single shared folder with a series of subfolders; however, the underlying structure of a namespace can come from shared folders on multiple servers in different sites.
DFS Replication Enables you to synchronize folders on multiple servers across local or WAN connections by using a multimaster replication engine. The replication engine uses the Remote Differential Compression (RDC) protocol to synchronize only the portions of files that have changed since the last replication. You can use DFS Replication with DFS Namespaces or by itself. When a domain is running in a Windows 2008 domain functional level or higher, domain controllers use DFS Replication to provide more robust and granular replication of the SYSVOL directory.
File Server Enables you to manage file shares that users can access over the network.
File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) Installs a suite of tools that administrators can use to better manage data stored on servers. By using FSRM, administrators can generate storage reports, configure quotas, and define file-screening policies.
File Server VSS Agent Service Enables VSS-aware backup utilities to create consistent shadow copies (snapshots) of applications that store data files on the file server.
iSCSI Target Server Turns any Windows Server into a network-accessible block storage device, which can be used for testing of applications prior to deploying storage area network (SAN) storage. It supports shared storage on both Windows iSCSI initiators and those iSCSI initiators that are not based on Windows as well as network/diskless boot for diskless servers.
iSCSI Target Storage Provider Supports managing iSCSI virtual disks and shadow copies (snapshots) from an iSCSI initiator.
Server for NFS Provides a file-sharing solution for enterprises with a mixed Windows and UNIX environment. When you install Server for Network File System (NFS), users can transfer files between Windows Server and UNIX operating systems by using the NFS protocol.
Storage Services Enables you to manage storage, including storage pools and storage spaces. Storage pools group disks so that you can create virtual disks from the available capacity. Each virtual disk you create is a storage space.
Work Folders Enables users to synchronize their corporate data to their devices and vice versa. Those devices can be joined to the corporate domain or a workplace.

IMPORTANT If payloads have been removed and you don’t specify a source, payloads are restored via Windows Update by default. however, Group Policy can be used to control whether Windows Update is used to restore payloads and to provide alternate source paths for restoring payloads. The policy with which you want to work is Specify Settings For Optional Component Installation And Component Repair, which is under Computer ConfigurationAdministrative TemplatesSystem. This policy also is used for obtaining payloads needed to repair components.

You can configure the File And Storage Services role on a server by following these steps:

1. In Server Manager, tap or click Manage, and then tap or click Add Roles And Features, or select Add Roles And Features in the Quick Start pane. This starts the Add Roles And Features Wizard. If the wizard displays the Before You Begin page, read the Welcome text, and then tap or click Next.

2. On the Installation Type page, Role-Based Or Feature-Based Installation is selected by default. Tap or click Next.

3. On the Server Selection page, you can choose to install roles and features on running servers or virtual hard disks. Either select a server from the server pool or select a server from the server pool on which to mount a virtual hard disk (VHD). If you are adding roles and features to a VHD, tap or click Browse and then use the Browse For Virtual Hard Disks dialog box to locate the VHD. When you are ready to continue, tap or click Next.

NOTE Only servers that are running Windows Server 2012 R2 and that have been added for management in Server Manager are listed.

4. On the Server Roles page, select File And Storage Services. Expand the related node, and select the additional role services to install. If additional features are required to install a role, you’ll see an additional dialog box. Tap or click Add Features to close the dialog box and add the required features to the server installation. When you are ready to continue, tap or click Next.

5. On the Features page, select the features you want to install. If additional functionality is required to install a feature you selected, you’ll see an additional dialog box. Tap or click Add Features to close the dialog box and add the required features to the server installation. When you are ready to continue, tap or click Next. Depending on the added feature, there might be additional steps before you get to the Confirm page.

6. On the Confirm page, tap or click the Export Configuration Settings link to generate an installation report that can be displayed in Internet Explorer.

REAL WORLD If the server on which you want to install roles or features doesn’t have all the required binary source files, the server gets the files via Windows Update by default or from a location specified in Group Policy.

? You can also specify an alternate path for the required source files. To do this, click the Specify An Alternate Source Path link, enter that alternate path in the box provided, and then tap or click OK. For network shares, enter the UNC path to the share, such as CorpServer25WinServer2012R2. For mounted Windows images, enter the WIM path prefixed with WIM: and including the index of the image to use, such as WIM: CorpServer25WinServer2012R2install.wim:4.

7. After you review the installation options and save them as necessary, tap or click Install to begin the installation process. The Installation Progress page tracks the progress of the installation. If you close the wizard, tap or click the Notifications icon in Server Manager, and then tap or click the link provided to reopen the wizard.

8. When Setup finishes installing the server with the roles and features you selected, the Installation Progress page will be updated to reflect this. Review the installation details to ensure that all phases of the installation were completed successfully. Note any additional actions that might be required to complete the installation, such as restarting the server or performing additional installation tasks. If any portion of the installation failed, note the reason for the failure. Review the Server Manager entries for installation problems, and take corrective actions as appropriate.

If the File Services role is already installed on a server and you want to install additional services for a file server, you can add role services to the server by using a similar process.

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