Книга: Iptables Tutorial 1.2.2
The TOS match can be used to match packets based on their TOS field. TOS stands for Type Of Service, consists of 8 bits, and is located in the IP header. This match is loaded explicitly by adding -m tos to the rule. TOS is normally used to inform intermediate hosts of the precedence of the stream and its content (it doesn't really, but it informs of any specific requirements for the stream, such as it having to be sent as fast as possible, or it needing to be able to send as much payload as possible). How different routers and administrators deal with these values depends. Most do not care at all, while others try their best to do something good with the packets in question and the data they provide.
Table 10-30. Tos match options
|Kernel||2.3, 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6|
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tos --tos 0x16|
|Explanation||This match is used as described above. It can match packets based on their TOS field and their value. This could be used, among other things together with the iproute2 and advanced routing functions in Linux, to mark packets for later usage. The match takes a hex or numeric value as an option, or possibly one of the names resulting from 'iptables -m tos -h'. At the time of writing it contained the following named values: Minimize-Delay 16 (0x10), Maximize-Throughput 8 (0x08), Maximize-Reliability 4 (0x04), Minimize-Cost 2 (0x02), and Normal-Service 0 (0x00). Minimize-Delay means to minimize the delay in putting the packets through - example of standard services that would require this include telnet, SSH and FTP-control. Maximize-Throughput means to find a path that allows as big a throughput as possible - a standard protocol would be FTP-data. Maximize-Reliability means to maximize the reliability of the connection and to use lines that are as reliable as possible - a couple of typical examples are BOOTP and TFTP. Minimize-Cost means minimizing the cost of packets getting through each link to the client or server; for example finding the route that costs the least to travel along. Examples of normal protocols that would use this would be RTSP (Real Time Stream Control Protocol) and other streaming video/radio protocols. Finally, Normal-Service would mean any normal protocol that has no special needs.|