Книга: Iptables Tutorial 1.2.2
The mark match extension is used to match packets based on the marks they have set. A mark is a special field, only maintained within the kernel, that is associated with the packets as they travel through the computer. Marks may be used by different kernel routines for such tasks as traffic shaping and filtering. As of today, there is only one way of setting a mark in Linux, namely the MARK target in iptables. This was previously done with the FWMARK target in ipchains, and this is why people still refer to FWMARK in advanced routing areas. The mark field is currently set to an unsigned integer, or 4294967296 possible values on a 32 bit system. In other words, you are probably not going to run into this limit for quite some time.
Table 10-22. Mark match options
|Kernel||2.3, 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6|
|Example||iptables -t mangle -A INPUT -m mark --mark 1|
|Explanation||This match is used to match packets that have previously been marked. Marks can be set with the MARK target which we will discuss in the next section. All packets traveling through Netfilter get a special mark field associated with them. Note that this mark field is not in any way propagated, within or outside the packet. It stays inside the computer that made it. If the mark field matches the mark, it is a match. The mark field is an unsigned integer, hence there can be a maximum of 4294967296 different marks. You may also use a mask with the mark. The mark specification would then look like, for example, --mark 1/1. If a mask is specified, it is logically AND ed with the mark specified before the actual comparison.|