Книга: Iptables Tutorial 1.2.2
This is a rather unorthodox match in comparison to the other matches, in the sense that it uses a little bit specific syntax. The match is used to match packets, based on which conntrack helper that the packet is related to. For example, let's look at the FTP session. The Control session is opened up, and the ports/connection is negotiated for the Data session within the Control session. The ip_conntrack_ftp helper module will find this information, and create a related entry in the conntrack table. Now, when a packet enters, we can see which protocol it was related to, and we can match the packet in our ruleset based on which helper was used. The match is loaded by using the -m helper keyword.
Table 10-17. Helper match options
|Kernel||2.4, 2.5 and 2.6|
|Example||iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m helper --helper ftp-21|
|Explanation||The --helper option is used to specify a string value, telling the match which conntrack helper to match. In the basic form, it may look like --helper irc. This is where the syntax starts to change from the normal syntax. We can also choose to only match packets based on which port that the original expectation was caught on. For example, the FTP Control session is normally transferred over port 21, but it may as well be port 954 or any other port. We may then specify upon which port the expectation should be caught on, like --helper ftp-954.|