Книга: Iptables Tutorial 1.2.2
This chapter has discussed some of the basic commands for iptables and the tables very briefly that can be used in netfilter. The commands makes it possible to do quite a lot of different operations on the netfilter package loaded inside kernel as you have seen.
The next chapter will discuss all the available matches in iptables and netfilter. This is a very heavy and long chapter, and I humbly suggest that you don't need to actually learn every single match available in any detail, except the ones that you are going to use. A good idea might be to get a brief understanding of what each match does, and then get a better grasp on them as you need them.